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Micro Biology (Chem Review)
Terms in this set (37)
is the most abundant component of all living cells and is essential for . It makes up between . can survive without .
65-75% of an average cell's mass
No living organism ..... water
Water is an excellent dissolving medium or . It is able to separate and surround many different kinds of .
solvent ....... solutes
Acids are able to produce when they dissociate ( ) in water.
hydrogen ions (H+) ... (dissolve)
substances which dissociate (dissolve) in water to form ions (charged particles) OTHER THAN H+ or OH-
Bases are able to produce when they dissociate ( ) in water.
hydrogen ions (OH-) ..... (dissolve)
a measure of the amount of H+ in a solution
pH value 7 is described as . Which means the H+ concentration is to that of the OH- concentration.
neutral ..... equal
pH below 7 is called . Which means there are H+ present in comparison to OH-.
Acidic .... more
pH above 7 is called . Which means there are H+ present in comparison to OH-.
Basic ..... fewer
If, as living organisms (like bacteria) grow, the pH changes too much, bacterial ,may be inhibited, and the bacteria may .
enzymes ..... die
Carbon atoms form how many covalent bonds with each other (or with other chemical elements)?
Organic macromolecules such as , , , and are assembled in living cells and are important to the cell's survival.
The principle function of carbohydrates is to by serving as a ready source of .
fuel cell activities ..... energy
Monosaccharides, or , such as (a very common hexose containing carbon atoms), are very important to living organisms. Glucose is the molecule for living cells.
single-sugar carbohydrates .....glucose..... 6...... main energy supplying
Other biologically important monosaccharides are the , present in nucleic acid DNA.
pentoses, such as deoxyribose
Cells form chemical bonds, such as those linking through a type of reaction known as . A molecule of is released when this type of reaction occurs.
multiple monosaccharides together..... water
Cells digest or break down dissacharides and larger carbohydrates by molecules between sugar units. This type of reaction is known as a reaction.
adding water ... hydrolysis
Lipids are essential to the of membranes which separate living cells from their .
structure and function ...... environments
Cell membranes contain . Each made of G, 2 Fa, Pg. Phospholipids enable the cell membrane to act as a from the water-based environment around the cell.
2 rows of (a bilayer) of phospholipids..... barrier separating the contents of a cell........
Waxes (such as those present in the cell walls of bacteria like (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are considered to be a type of complex .
Proteins are containing: C,H,O,N,S(s). Proteins typically make up % or more of a cell's dry weight.
organic molecules .......... Carbon Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and sometimes Sulfur.... 50
proteins which speed up cells' chemical reactions
Amino Acids are the of proteins; different amino acids occur in proteins. One protein may contain from of amino acid molecules arranged in an almost infinite number of ways. This allows cells to form a practically endless number of different .
50 to hundreds
Chemical bonds between amino acids in proteins are called bonds and are formed by reactions as is removed between units.
sequence of the amino acids in a protein
involves the twisting or folding of the polypeptide chain
gives each protein a unique three-dimensional shape
Some proteins also have Quaternary structure, with
two or more individual polypeptide chains aggregating together to form the functional protein
The overall shape of a protein may be (compact and relatively spherical) or (long, thin, and threadlike.)
What may cause a protein to denature? What happens to the protein then?
Extreme temperature, pH, and other extreme conditions
Loss of normal shape and functioning
DNA and RNA are both considered to be . Both DNA and RNA are made of building block structural units known as . Each one is compromised of three subunits: a Ncb, a ps, and a Pg.
Nitrogen containing base, a Pentose sugar, and Phosphate Group
The 4 Nitrogen Containing Bases of DNA are: The Pentose sugar is .
The 4 Nitrogen Containing Bases of RNA are: . The Pentose sugar is .
What type of bonding keeps together the Nitrogen containing bases?
What type of chemical reaction is responsible for bonding the separate nucleotides to each other during DNA replication?
What is the main energy-carrying molecule used by all cells? Its role is to do what? It is made up of what?
ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
It stores the chemical energy released by certain chemical reactions and it provides teh energy required in order for other chemical reactions to occur.
Adenine and ribose, with three phosphate groups attached.
Is ATP chemically more similar to carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids?
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