60 terms

Juvenile Delinquency

theory integration
combining 2 or more existing theories on the basis of their perceived commonalities in order to develop a new theory that improves on the constituent theories; to advance our understanding of crime and delinquency
relationship between family and delinquency
the quality of life within the home is a more significant deterrent of delinquent behavior than the presence of both parents; parental rejection is associated w/delinquent behavior; inconsistent, lax, or severe discipline is associated w/increased delinquency
strain theory
pressure exerted on youths who cannot attain cultural success goals by the social structure will push them to engage in nonconforming behavior
Merton's stages of adaptation to anomie
conformity, innovation, ritualism,retreatism,rebellion
Stages of adaptation to anomie conformity
accepts cultural goals and institutional means
stages of adaptation to anomie innovation
accepts cultural goals but rejects institutional means
stages of adaptation to anomie ritualism
rejects cultural goals but accepts institutional means
stages of adaptation to anomie retreatism
reject cultural goals and institutional means
stages of adaptation to anomie rebellion
rejects values and institutions, but substitutes them for a new set of values and institutions
repeated involvement of a juvenile in one type of delinquency during the course of his or her offending
a youth with a personality disorder; a hard-core juvenile criminal; undomesticated child
social structure
the relatively stable formal and informal arrangements that characterize a society, including its economic arrangements, social institutions, and values and norms
social control according to Hirishi
proposes that delinquent acts result when a juvenile's bond to society is weak or broken
the process by which individuals come to internalize their culture; learn the norms, sanctions, and expectations of being a member of a particular society; good or bad norms and values
self report studies class suggestions
juvies in both middle and lower classes are involved in considerable illegal behavior; BUT soecioeconomically lower-class youths appear to commit more frequent delinquent acts and are more likely to be chronic offenders than are youths in the socioecon middle-class
-african americans are more likely than whites to be arrested, convicted, and institutionalized
self report studies- why challenged
research designs have often been deficient leading to false inferences; varied nature of social settings in which they are conducted makes it difficult for investigators to test hypotheses; the studies' reliability and validity are questionable
self report studies
studies of juvenile crime based on surveys in which youths report on their own delinquent acts
routine activity theory
Cohen and Felson: crime rate trends and cycles are related to the nature of everyday patterns of social interaction that characterize the society in which they occur
punishment by Cesare
a necessary evil that should be public, immediate, and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime; determined by the laws; purpose-to deter persons from the commission of crime and not to provide social revenge
reaction formation
Psychological strategy for dealing with frustration by becoming hostile toward an unattainable object
radical nonintervention
schur: authorities should "leave the kids alone whenever possible"
radical criminology
a perspective that holds that the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well organized but disfranchise the less fortunate
incidence of delinquency
the frequency with which delinquent behavior takes place; person, place, number involved
prevalance of delinquency
the percentage of the juvenile population who are involved in delinquent behavior
power-control theory
Hagan et.al: the relationship between gender and delinquency is linked to issues of power and control
positivism view of delinquents
delinquents are affected by biological or psychological factors that impair their decision-making abilities
just as laws operate in bio, medical, and physical sciences, laws govern human behavior; these laws can be understood and used. Causes of human behavior can be modified to eliminate many of society's problems
oppurtunity theory
gang members turn to delinquency because of a sense of injustice about the lack of legitimate opportunities open to them
property crimes
masculinity hypothesis
the idea that as girls become more boylike and acquire more "masculine" traits, they become more delinquent
life course
5 principles: crime is more likely to occur when an individual's ties to society are attenuated; 2-antisocial behavior in childhood; adult life course matters; human agency is important; dual policy should focus on emphasizing prevention and reform
life course theory/perspective
a sociological framework suggesting that four key factors determine the shape of the life course: location in time and place, linked lives, human agency, and timing of lives
primary deviance
initial act of deviance that causes a person to be labeled a deviant
secondary deviance
deviance that is a consequence of societal reaction to an initial delinquent act
labeling theory
society creates the delinquent by labeling those who are apprehended as "different" from other youth, when in reality they are different primarily because they have been 'tagged' with a deviant label
index offenses
the most serious offenses reported in the FBI's UCRP, including murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
Frued id, ego, superego
neurotic development; defective superego-unable to feel guilt or affection toward others (socio/psychopaths); overdeveloped superego-represses feelings in childhood, then feelings explode in violent crimes; compensatory gratification the missed earlier
conscience-internalizes the rules of society
mediates between the id an superego-socialization
a person's raw instincts and primitive drives; immediate
human agency
the active role juveniles take in their lives; the fact that juveniles are not merely subject to social and structural constraints but make choices and decisions based on the alternatives that they see before them
general theory of crime
people who lack self-control will tend to be impulsive, insensitive, physical, risk-taking, short-sighted, and nonverbal and will tend therefore to engage in criminal and analogous acts
feminist theory and juvenile delinquency
Meda Chesney-Lind and others: adolescent females' victimization at home causes them to become delinquent and that this fact has been systematically ignored
drift theory matza
the theoretical perspective that juveniles neutralize the moral hold of society and drift into delinquent behavior; delinquent transiently exists in limbo between convention and crime, responding in turn to the demands of each
differential association theory
?: the view that delinquency is learned from others, and that delinquent behavior is to be expected of individuals who have internalizes a preponderance of definitions that are favorable to law violations
conduct norms
the rules of a group governing the ways its members should act under particular conditions; the violation of these rules arouse a group reaction
culture conflict theory
Sellin and others proposed idea that delinquency or crime arises because individuals are members of a subculture that has conduct norms which are in conflict with those of the wider society
cultural deviance theory
Shaw, Mckay, and Miller proposed that delinquent behavior is an expression of conformity to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the large U.S. society
Jeremy Bentham
Criminal behavior is a result of free will/rational choice
containment theory
Walter C. reckless' theoretical perspective that strong inner containment and reinforcing external containment provide insulation against delinquent and criminal behavior
conflict theory
a perspective which holds that delinquency can be explained by socioecon class, by power and authority relationships, and by group and cultural differences
The relationship between class and the commission of serious violent offenses?:
problems of childhood related
chivalry factor
the idea that the justice system tends to treat adolescent females and women more leniently because of their gender
relationship between these forms of abuse/neglect and delinquency
being abused & neglected can lead to delinquency or the opposite; at least a partial link between child abuse and neglect and delinquent behavior and status offenses; may experience psychological problems, run away, truancy, drug and alcohol abuse; involvement in deviant sexual behavior & aggressive stance toward others
characteristic problem behaviors
socialized in economically stressed families, histories of physical abuse and sexual victimization, educational & vocational skill deficits, alcohol & drug abuse;
blocked opportunity
limited or nonexistent chances of success; according to strain theory, a key factor in delinquency
most likely to commit
possession of stolen property, drugs and alcohol, vandalism, weapons offenses
average delinquent today
high-risk youths who are involved in multiple problem behaviors; males
Merton anomie
normlessness; when a culture lacks integration between goals and institutionalized means
Emily Durkheim anomie
normlessness; society's failure to provide adequate regulation of its members' attitudes and behaviors