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pericardial cavity

where the heart is located


the study of the normal heart and diseases associated with it

vertebral column/ sternum

the two structures the heart lies between


a double-walled sac enclosing the heart

fibrous pericardium

loose fitting superficial part of the sac enclosing the heart

protects/ anchors/ prevents overfilling

functions of the fibrous pericardium

serous pericardium

deep to the fibrous pericardium


a thin, slippery, two layer pericardium

parietal/ visceral

the two layers of the serous membrane


outer layer of the serous pericardium


layer that lines the external heart surface

pericardial cavity

space located between the two layers of the serous pericardium

pericardial fluid

helps reduce friction as the heart moves within the pericardial sac

epicardium/ myocardium/ endocardium

layers of the heart wall


layer of the heart with smooth lining for chambers of heart, valves and continuous with lining of large blood vessels

interacial septum

seperates the two atria

interventricular septum

seperates the two ventricles


a solid structure that separates two cavities

coronary sulcus

encircles the junction of the atria and ventricles


grooves on surface of heart

blood vessels/ fat

the sulci includes these

anterior interventricular sulcus

marks the anterior position of the septum separating the right and left ventricles


side of the ventricle that pumps blood into the lungs


side of the ventricle that pumps blood throughout the body


two upper chambers of the heart


have thin walls and receive blood returning to the heart


small earlike projections in the atria


extend anteriorly from the atria and help to increase atrial volume

fossa ovalis

a shallow depression on the interatial septum

fossa ovale

cavity that existed on the interatial septum in the fetal heart


function of the atria

superior vena cava/ inferior vena cava/ coronary sinus

major openings of the right atrium

superior vena cava

returns blood from regions superior to the diaphragm

inferior vena cava

returns blood from regions below the diaphragm

coronary sinus

returns blood from the myocardium of the heart

tricuspid valve

where blood flows through into the right ventricle

left atrium

forms most of the base of the heart

bicuspid/ mitral/ left atrioventricular valve

where blood passes through into the left ventricle


two lower chambers of the heart

right ventricle

forms most of the hearts anterior surface

left ventricle

forms most of the hearts posterior surface


the major pumping chambers of the heart

pulmonary trunk

routes the blood to the lungs

pulmonary circulation carnae

another name for the lungs

papillary muscles

are cone shaped trabeculae carnae

trabeculae carnae

raised bundles of cardiac muscle

chordae tendineae

cords between valve cusps and papillary muscles

pulmonary semilunar valve

where blood flows into the pulmonary trunk

left ventricle

pumps blood into the aorta and then to the rest of the body

systemic circulation

the pumping of blood throughout the body

left ventricle

forms the apex of the heart

chordae tendineae

anchors bicuspid valve to papillary muscles

aortic semilunar valve

where blood passes through valve into the ascending aorta

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