45 terms

Review The Middle Ages in Europe


Terms in this set (...)

Eastern part of the Roman Empire that survived the fall of the western part
Emperor Constantine
founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor; issued the Edit of Milan in 313, granting religious toleration throughout the empire
capital of the Byzantine Empire, The capital of the eastern Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine Empire
Eastern Orthodoxy
Church established in the Byzantine Empire after the split from the Roman Catholic Church; Greek & Russian Orthodox Churches descend from this
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches
images of Jesus and the saints
Church of Hagia Sophia
______________ was an example of Byzantine architecture.
the Byzantine Emperor who developed Justinian's code, built the Hagia Sophia, walls, and the Hippodrome
Code of Justinian
The collection of laws that were taken from old Roman law and rewritten so that they could be easily understood.
Seljuk Turks
defeated the Byzantine army in 1071 and took possession of most of Asia Minor
Ottoman Turks
Captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States
greatly influenced by Byzantium and emerged as a state in the 9th century, in the fo rest lands between the Baltic and Black Seas
Middle Ages
medieval period - the period between ancient and modern times
Northern Tribes who invaded and sacked Rome, Generic term for foreign invaders of a different religion.
Germanic invaders who overran the western half of the Roman Empire
Angles and Saxons
invaded England: former land of the Roman Empire
A Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul. Gual is today known as France.
Charles Martel
gathered many Frankish warriors to fight in the battle of Tours where they won against Muslims
Battle of Tours
European armies defeat Muslim armies and stop the spread of Islam in Europe
Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
Slavs and Magyars
invaded the lands of Germany, France, and Italy from the east during Charlemagne's reign.
fierce warriors and sailors from Scandinav ia in Northern Europe. They sailed south in search of trade, loot, and land.
political system based upon alliances for mutual protection
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
a person of high rank who owned land but owed loyalty to his king
warriors who fought on horseback
A large estate/land, including farmland and villages, held by a lord
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Could not be bought or sold but their labor belonged to the lord.
three-field system
One-third of the land left unplanted each year to increase fertility.
Peasant Life-Styles
worked long hours to grow enough food to survive each year
What the middle ages was called because of the widespread Christian belief
church taxes
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Religious communities of monks
St. Augustine
He concludes that no earthly city, like Rome, can last forever. Only the "City of God" in Heaven is eternal. Faith is important
St. Thomas Aquinas
made famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle with the doctrines of Christianity; best know for Summa Theologica
natural law
universal laws independent of any laws passed by government. These laws are based on reason.
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Urban II
pope who called for the First Crusade (1042-1099)
associations of people who worked at the same craft or trade during the Middle Ages
Magna Carta
This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government.
King John
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
the lawmaking body of British government