AP US History - Unit 3
Terms from the 3rd Unit (Testing the New Nation) of the American Pageant Text Book. Use these to study for your AP US History Exam.
Terms in this set (133)
This was the first battle of the Civil war. Fought by the ill prepared Union army it was a heavy defeat by the Confederates. This battle showed that the Lincoln had been wrong to claim this would be a quick and easy war. The defeat put it into perspective showing that the Union forces were no match skill wise to the Confederate army and they would have to depend on only number.
General George C. McClellan
He was the "on again off again" general of the Union army and a WestPoint Graduate. He was known for his brilliant organization skills and beloved by his troops for his willingness to be conservative in an effort to save lives. __________'s conservativism prevented him from having as much as an effect as Lincoln hoped for as he never did a good enough job. This led to him being fired and reinstated multiple times until he was permanently replaced by Grant.
This was a nickname that referred to General George C. McClellan because of his days at WestPoint and his cocky attitude. McClellan never truly lived up to his high expectations as were hoped when he was a West Pointer. However he was known for how much he cared for his troops.
In Virginia where Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior army and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack the Union flank. This was successful strategy as it was one of the Confederates most successful victories of the war. However, during the battle Jackson was shot and killed by friendly fire which depleted the moral of the confederate force.
The sight of a gigantic war with Meade and his 92,000 troops and Lee's 76,000 troops in which by sheer number the North was Victorious. The devastation at Gettysburg broke the back of the Confederate attack and broke the heart of the Confederate Cause.
This was the highpoint for the Confederate army as it was the furthest North it ever reached and Lee hoped victory at Gettysburg would secure a peace agreement with Lincoln. However the defeat destroyed any hope of Confederate victory. The war continued only because Lee could not face defeat. Like all battles it was over long before the treaty was officially signed.
Ulysses S. Grant
A western general who replaced McClellan because of his inconsistency and led the Union to victory. Although he was just a subpart student at WestPoint he still proved more effective in her field. He had a drinking problem admired by Lincoln. Grant gave Lincoln a general that he could depend on which greatly helped the Union in its quest for Victory. He was very aggressive and new men needed to be sacrificed for victory. He once said when asked about Grant's drinking problem "Give me 100 barrels of what he's drinking and I'll give it to the rest of my officers".
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
This was a Union Victory coming the day after Gettysburg in Mississippi and was the South's lifeline o the western sources of supply. The significance of back to back victories for the North was monumental as it convinced many of Republican success. The most important aspect of this victory is it ended any hope of Britain interfering on the side of the South. It also tipped the scale in favor of the abolitionists.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Red-haired and red-bearded he captured Atlanta in September 1864 and burned the city in November. He was a pioneer of "Total War" as he was very destructive and aggressive. __________'s "total war" mentality angered the South who felt he was further provoking war. However it is undeniable that his methods were very effective.
Sub-division of the fractured democratic party. Consisting of a large portion, the war democrats patriotically supported the Lincoln administration. These democrats did not pose as big a threat to the Union as the Peace Democrats or copperheads.
Sub-division of the fractured democratic party. Tens of thousands who did not support the Lincoln Administration. The hippies of the civil war.
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
The Thirteenth Amendment
forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude both illegal. The Amendment was ratified in 1865, after the war was over. The South had to ratify it to be readmitted to the Union. The Thirteenth Amendment was the first step in a long journey towards racial equality.
On December 13, 1862, General A.E. Burnsides launched a rash frontal attack on Lee's strong position at the city. Not smart. Lots of Northerners died. Burnsides' blunder led to the replacement by Hooker, who's ensuing failure led to the appointment of Meade to General. Meade won Gettysburg.
"Fighting Joe" Hooker
After Burnsides led the disaster at Fredericksburg, he was replaced by Hooker, who was an aggressive officer but a headstrong subordinate. Defeated at Chancellorsville, VA. Lee's victory over Hooker led to his decision to invade the North once again. This time Hooker was replaced by George G. Meade, who led the union to victory at Gettysburg.
Nickname given to General George B. McClellan. Red-Haired and mustached, the strong and stocky general was a 34 year old West Pointer. Superb organizer and drillmaster, he was idolized by his troops. McClellan's strained relationship with Lincoln led to his firing.
Name given to the election of 1864. Northern soldiers were furloughed home to support Lincoln at the polls. Without this, the election could have been much closer. McClellan lost the electoral vote by 212 to 21, but received a healthy 45 percent of the vote.
"Grant the Butcher"
Refers to General Grant's form of warfare. Grant's basic strategy was to hammer ahead no matter how brutally necessary; he could trade two men for one and still beat the enemy. Public opinion in the North was appalled by Grant's "blood and guts" type of fighting. Set the standard for modern warfare.
Where Grant cornered Lee in 1865, ending the Civil War. This reunited the Union, and freed the slaves, although they were not to attain full liberty for a long while.
What freed blacks called Abe Lincoln, in a sort of religious, god-like manner. Abe told them not to kneel to him but to God, which would be more appropriate considering he did not make the Civil War about slavery until he realized that a he could not reunite the Union under the conflict of slavery. Represents the unfair credit given to Lincoln by the slaves and many other people. Although Lincoln played a large role in the abolition of slavery and led the Union in the Civil War (not over slavery until later) he still believed that blacks were an inferior people.
Where Lincoln was shot on April 14, 1865, five days after Lee's surrender. He was killed by John Wilkes Booth, who slipped behind him in his booth and shot him in the head. As the once-critical Secretary Stanton said, "Now he belongs to the ages." Could be one reason why Lincoln is so highly regarded morally. After winning the war and freeing the slaves (not original intention) he was shot before he had time to deal with anything more on the issue of blacks. Had he, people might have remembered him as more of the racist that he was. It also set the stage for Reconstruction.
John Wilkes Booth
The man that shot Lincoln in the head at Ford's Theater. A half-crazed (according to the book, I don't know what to believe after reading that chapter from Lies My teacher Told Me...) Pro-Southern actor. First man ever to assassinate an American President.
"Now he belongs to the ages."
Famous quote by Secretary Stanton referring to Lincoln after his assassination. This quote is relatively true, Lincoln going down in history as the (perhaps falsely credited) Great Emancipator and freer of the slaves.
The Crucifixion Thesis
The theory that had Lincoln lived, he too would have been impeached by members of his own party as Andrew Johnson was. However Lincoln's victorious nature, powers of leadership, reasonableness, and common sense, all of which the hot-tempered Johnson lacked, would have yielded a quite different outcome. This implication suggests that Johnson took the bullet for Lincoln, however it is highly implausible that two completely different men could have possibly prompted congress to impeach them.
Historian who has noted other ways in which the Civil War extended the authority of the Central Government. It expanded federal powers of taxation. It encouraged the government to develop the National Banking System, print currency, and conscript an army. And it also made federal courts more influential. He provides information to contrast the popular belief that the Civil War resulted in more individual rights (which it did through slavery, but these new extensions to authority decreased the power of the individual).
Clement L. Vallandigham
Ohio congressman and notorious Copperhead. He was a great orator and had a knack for stirring up trouble. He demanded an end to the "wicked and cruel" war, and was convicted for treasonable utterances. Lincoln later banished him to the Confederacy. Represented the disputes that lay within the two factions of the war, not only between them. It also displayed the lack of freedom of speech during the time.
Was Lincoln's vice-president, and became president after Lincoln was shot. Through the questionable crucifixion thesis he is though to have taken the bullet of Lincoln's inevitable fate of impeachment. The first US president to be impeached.
Army of the Potomac
Lead by commander George B. McClellan it was a major union force near Washington. Fought against the Confederates in the civil war.
The Peninsula Campaign
McClellan inched toward the Confederate capital in the spring of 1862 with about 100,000 men. Led to the seven days battle.
The Seven Days' Battle
Launched by general Robert E. Lee from June 26-July 2, 1862.The Confederates were winning and drove McClellan back to the sea. Lincoln then fired McCellan.
Ultimate Destination/Continuous Voyage
The Northern Navy enforced the blockade of the seas. London was very unhappy about this leading to a future war.
A former wooden U.S. warship renamed the Virginia could easily destroy two wooden ships of the Union Navy. It was remodled by the confederates and was threatening to the Yankee blockading fleet.
"Don't swap horses in the middle..."
One of the favorite chants that the Union party sang. This was in promotion of Lincoln instead of McClellan.
A tiny Union ironclad built in about 100 days, fought the Merrimack on March 9. A few months after the battle the Confederates destroyed the Merrimack to keep it from being stolen by the Union.
A critical battle where two Union soldiers found Lee's battle plans that were dropped on the ground.This helpful evidence Helped McClellan halt Lee at the battle. Most desicive even in the civil war. This victory lead to the emancipation Proclimation.
Declared that the slaves were forever free in the confederate states that were still in rebellion. Put an end to the war and helped preserve the union later came the 13th amendment.
The most important of only two southern forts that remained in the "stars and stripes" after the secession. However, only lasted until the middle of April 1861 as when Lincoln sent reinforcements they were attacked in one of the first official battles of the war. Fort ________ demonstrates how the country was truly divided and the small amount of support located in the South. When Lincoln sent reinforcements Jefferson Davis saw it as an act of war and attacked the troops for one of the first official battles of the war.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
This was a disbanded by Lincoln which allowed him to arrest any who opposed him without a trial as was protected in the Constitution. This was seen by some as unconstitutional as it was opposed by the Chief justice and overstepped the boundary of power for the president, however it was necessary in securing victory during the war. It showed that the South was no longer under the protection of the Constitution.
"Three hundred Dollar Men"
It was a term used to refer to the sum that the rich Unionists had to pay in place of them going to war. The term eructed as a protest claiming that soldiers lives were worth just $300. This showed the ever powerful division of class still present in times of war.
Issued by the Washington Treasury, this printing-press currency was inadequately supported by gold. Since it was based on gold, the __________ value was determined by the nation's credit. __________ fluctuated with the fortunes of Union arms and at one low point were worth only 39 cents on the gold dollar. Thus, the holders of the notes were indirectly taxed.
Name given to those who rushed to harvest the petroleum gushers in 1859. The result was the birth of a new industry with its "petroleum plutocracy" and "coal oil Johnnies." Some of these 59ers moved west to avoid the federal draft.
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
America's first female physician. She helped organize the U.S. Sanitary commission to assist the Union armies in the field. The commission trained nurses, collected medial supplies, and equipped hospitals. Commission work helped many women acquire the skills and self-confidence that would propel the women's rights movement after the war.
Clara Barton/Dorothea Dix
____1____ was the crediting founder of the American Red Cross. ____2____ was superintendent of nurses for the Union army. Both helped transform nursing from a lowly service into a respected profession. This respect opened up job opportunities for women after the war.
Morrill Tariff Act
This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war. This was just one the new taxes being passed to meet the demanding costs of the war. Although they were still low to today's standers they still raked in millions of dollars.
Northern democrats who opposed the Civil War, and were so-named for the copper liberty-headed coins that they wore as badges. Is an example of disagreement that lay within the Union.
A Confederate ship built in Britain and armed after it left port so it was not considered a warship when it left port. Displayed the main foreign intervention in the war, and because it never landed in a Confederate port it yielded Britain the naval base of the Confederacy.
Robert E. Lee/Stonewall Jackson
_________ was the first-rate, gray-haired commander of the South whose chivalry and honor embodied southern ideal. His chief lieutenant was _____2_____, a black-bearded man, a gifted tactical theorist, and a master of speed and deception. Due to these two men the South had the advantage in military leadership, the North winning mostly due to luck and numbers.
Dethroning King Cotton
Because of the surplus of cotton exported in the prior years the demand was high. After the abolishment of slavery cotton could no longer be rapidly produced. This lead to King corn and King wheat which were new exports.
The Trent affair
This was the first major crisis with Britain after a union warship north of Cuba stopped the British steamer the Trent and removed 2 confederate diplomats destined for Europe. The British government was extremely upset and demanded an apology and the prisoners be set free.
National Banking System
Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank.
This party organized by "Nativists" in outrage of all the Irish and German immigrants flooding the country. Were a group of people who opposed the increasing immigration levels and attempted to write legislation for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing The deportation of alien paupers. This was just an example of a group of people attempting to thwart the increase of immigration which has continued to make-up America.
Dred Scott Decision
This was a court case that began in Missouri between a slave "Dred Scott" vs. his master and later the supreme court arguing that because he had lived in the free state of Wisconsin he should be free. However, the supreme court's verdict on this controversial case was that since he was property he could be taken anywhere and that he had no right to sue as he was not a citizen. This decision was important because it angered the northern people who claimed the verdict violated the terms of the Missouri Compromise. It sparked conflict between the North and south and became a primary cause leading up to the Civil War.
This was the name given to the conflict between Northern and Southern immigrants to Kansas which resulted in conflicts concerning popular sovereignty. There would be constant battle between abolitionists and anti-abolitionists to try to make Kansas join their respected beliefs. One could go as far as to say that this conflict was the start as the Civil War as it was battle between North and south. It showed how there was no turning back and the only solution would have to come from the blood of the citizens.
He was a militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear. In May of 1856, he led a group of his followers to Pottawattamie Creek and launched a bloody attack against pro-slavery men killing five people. This began violent retaliation against he and his followers. This violent attack against slavery helped give Kansas its nick name, "bleeding Kansas". There have been a variety of interpretations of what He's position in history should be. The verdict seems to be a national hero who fought for the rights of slaves and died for them as a white man. His strength to except death for his cause brought strength to the ideological movement during the Civil War which gave people a reason to fight.
This was a manipulative document designed by the pro-slavery members of Kansas after they realized that there were too many abolitionists for it to be a slave state. It sated that any if anyone voted against slavery in Kansas that all the slaves already present would remain slaves along with their offspring. This was another example of how the manipulative south would go to any extreme to maintain slavery in the Union. This conflict helped bring about the Civil War.
The fifteenth president of the U.S., _______ was highly influenced by the South. Regime's legacy relied heavily on the notorious Lecompton Constitution. Buchanan's antagonizing of the Douglas Democrats in the North divided the once-powerful Democratic Party. This left the door open for the Republicans, who would gather behind Abraham Lincoln.
Charles Sumner/Preston Books
As a senator from Mass., he was a leading abolitionist. His speech, "The Crime Against Kansas." was an assault of the pro-slavery South Carolina and the South in general. The insult angered Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks walked up to his desk and beat him unconscious. This violent incident helped touch off the war between the North and the South.
Stephen A. Douglas
A squat, bull-necked, heavy-chested, self-made Senator. Supported the democratic concept of dividing Nebraska into Kansas and Nebraska, the issue of slavery in each state determined by popular sovereignty. He delivered a counterstroke to offset the Gadsden thrust for souther expansion westward.
October of 1859; John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a Southern-wide slave revolt. He planned to ride down the river and provide slaves with guns, but the slaves were not organized. Brown was captured and hanged. This was just another reason for the South to separate from the North, which, in their opinion, was full of John Browns. John Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
Hinton R. Helper/ The Impending Crisis
Hinton Helper hated both slavery and blacks and used his book, "The Impending Crisis" to try and prove that non-aristocratic whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. Helper's influence was negligible among the poorer whites, but he found success in the North. The South was infuriated that the North was reading these lies, and made the south increasingly unwilling to sleep under the same federal roof with the North.
Panic of 1857
An economic crash that arose due to the inflation caused by inpouring California gold. The demands of the Crimean War over-stimulated grain growth and land speculation, and when the collapse came over five thousand businesses failed. Northern farmers were hard-hit by the panic, while the South basically went untouched. Also the panic created a clamor of higher tariff rates.
A term for Abraham Lincoln. A Springfield lawyer, known for his strong conscience, that became the 16th US president. Known for help abolishing slavery, and often falsely credited with freeing the slaves. President during Civil War. A strong power in the abolition of slavery. President throughout Civil War and led Union to victory through reunion and abolition.
Lincoln challenged Douglas, probably the nations most devastating debater, to a debate. Lincoln brought up the question of whether or not a territory could vote slavery down without the Supreme Court overruling. Douglas responded with what's known as the Freeport Doctrine, stating that no matter how the court ruled, if people vote slavery down it will stay down. Although Lincoln was defeated in the running for Illinois, the rippling effect of these debates led to his potential Republican nomination for President.
Douglas's response to Lincoln's question regarding people voting on slavery and being overruled by the Supreme Court. It stated that no matter how the court ruled, slavery will stay down if the people vote it down. This response in the Lincoln-Douglas trials resulted in Douglas defeating Lincoln for Senate in Illinois.
Roger B. Taney
The Chief of Justice who, regarding the Dred Scott decision, decreed that because a slave was private property, he or she could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery. Knocked free-soilers back on their heels. This result only further fueled the fight over slavery, thus further pushing towards civil war.
"All we ask is to be left alone"
The famous quote that Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, declared to his congress. Reflected the South's lack of desire to fight. They believed that the North would just let them secede because they lacked the will and/or ability to fight, and their economy was dependant on southern agriculture.
Harriet Beacher Stowe/ Uncle Tom's Cabin
The mother of 6 children who wrote the book about slavery. She dismayed by the passage of the fugitive slave law, and was determined to awaken the north to the wickedness of slavery. Several thousand copies were published in the first year. No other novel in American history can be compared with it as political force.
A Political leader who favored the extension of slavery. His opponents were Douglas and Bell. He polled fewer votes in slave states than the combined strength of his opponents. Showing that because of Uncle toms cabin American was mainly abolitionists.
Senator for Tennessee and although he owned many slaves he was opposed to the idea of expanding slavery. Voted against Kansas Nebraska act and ran against Breckenridge.
Election of 1860
Virtually 2 elections. One in the North and one in the south. An election Where Lincoln had victory in the southern states. The issue depended on slavery because the North and South had different opinions.
President of the confederacy from Kentucky who was in favor of the expansion of slavery. "All we ask is to be left alone" The republicans still won control over congress. He was the rival of Lincoln.
Crittenden Amendment/ Compromise
An effort by Senator James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky to appease south. Slavery in the territories was prohibited north of 36 and 30. Was rejected by Lincoln because he completely opposed the expansion of slavery.
John C. Freemont
The pathfinder of the west he was a republican but had no political experience. Against the expansion of slavery. He made violent threats of the southern fire eaters, and lost a lot of political ground.
This was the idea presented by Crass to leave it up to new territories on deciding whether or not they wanted to enter as slave states, however this contradicted the Missouri compromise which restricted slaver over the 36 30 line. This angered many people as it directly contradicted the Missouri Compromise, however it did settle some of the disputes between the majority of the slave states vs. free states. It gave the Free states a better opportunity to outnumber the slave states, but many conflicts still arose.
Taylor was a general and hero of the Mexican-American war. He was elected to the presidency in 1848, representing the Whig party and was a good soldier but poor administrator. He was in office during the crisis of California's admittance to the Union but died in office before a compromise could be worked out, and left vice president Filmore to finalize a deal between the hostile north and south. His significance as president was that he was one of the last Whigs and didn't solve the problem of sectionalism in the country which caused the civil war.
Daniel Webster/ 7th of March Speed
Webster had a remarkable career in politics and law. He was a conservative nationalist and Federalist/Whig, serving as congressman (1813-1817 from New Hampshire and 1823-1827 from Massachusetts), senator (1827-1841, 1845-1850), and secretary of state (1841-1843, 1850-1852). He espoused policies to encourage economic growth and to preserve the Union, but sectionalism and slavery undermined those objectives and denied him the presidency as well.
William Seward/ Higher Law
Elected governor in 1838, he entered the U.S. Senate in 1849 and established himself as a promoter of America's mission in the world and was a leading opponent of slavery. He lost the primary Republican nomination for president to Abraham Lincoln, but continued in politics in hope that one day it would lead to presidency. In 1850, he appealed to a "higher law than the Constitution" in condemning slavery, and in 1858, by then a Republican, spoke of an "irrepressible conflict" between freedom and slavery.
The Compromise of 1850
This was signed by Millard Fillmore and deals with disputed territory, and the controversy of whether California should join the Union as a free or slave state. The results were that California joined as a free state, and what was left of the Mexican Cession land became New Mexico and Utah, and did not restrict slavery. It benefited the North more than the South. It was a turning point for the North as it split the deadlock between slave states and free states tipping the scale to the free states. This was one of the final activities that lead to the civil war.
Personal Liberty Laws
After S. Carolina made it a penal offense for any state official to enforce new federal stature, other states passed "personal liberty laws", which denied local jails to federal officials. Hampered federal law enforcement. Illustrated the struggle between state and federal power.
Stated that neither America nor Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway. Reflected the success of the Monroe Doctrine. This agreement seemed necessary at the time, but to American canal promoters in later years it proved to be a ball and chain.
Engineer of the Compromise of 1850, which was his third great compromise. Suggested that the North should yield by enacting a more feasible fugitive-slave law. The "Great Pacificator" was responsible for three of the most important compromises in American history. Without ___________, it is plausible to say the Civil War would have occurred much earlier.
John C. Calhoun
The sixty-eight year old South Carolina senator who also met to settle the Compromise of 1850. An associate delivered a speech that he wrote which declared the legitimacy slavery. _________'s representation of the South was one of the reasons the power between North and South remained balanced for so long.
The purchase of land in the Southern part of the New Mexico Territory. Allowed the completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad. With the new territory, the South could build its coveted railroad that would give them direct connection to the raw materials of the West.
Stephan A. Douglas (the "Little Giant")
A squat, bull-necked, heavy-chested, self-made man. Supported the democratic concept of dividing Nebraska into Kansas and Nebraska, the issue of slavery in each state determined by popular sovereignty. He delivered a counterstroke to offset the Gadsden thrust for souther expansion westward.
Split Nebraska into two different states, Kansas and Nebraska, leaving the issue of slavery to be determined by popular sovereignty. One of the most momentous measures ever to pass congress. Greased the slippery slope to the Civil War. Resulted in the Republican Party.
Sprang up, partly to oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act, in the Midwest, notably Wisconsin and Michigan, as a mighty moral protest against slavery. Brought together disgruntled Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other opposers of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Still one of the two dominant political parties to this day.
Term used to define Southerners who voiced threats of secession. The treats of these __________ resulted in the most distinguished assemblage of men since the Constitutional Convention. Included Clay, Calhoun, and Webster.
Pearl of the Antilles
Refers to Cuba. Rich in sugar and right off the souther doorstep of the US, it was the prime objective of Manifest Destiny in the 1850s. Fought over by Spain and US. Emphasizes the remaining hunger for land in the US, even though it already stretched from sea to sea and dominated all land in-between. Dispute over land resulted in the Ostend Manifesto
American ministers in Spain, England, and France had a confidential meeting attempting to acquire Cuba for $120,000,000. This secret quickly leaked and Northerners rose against manifesto of Brigands. Helped territorial expansion.
The discovery of Gold in the newly acquired land of California causing a rush of thousands of Americans to move out west in hopes of becoming rich. This rush of people caused an outburst of crime and many killings in the San Francisco area.
Group heavily influenced by the abolitionist crusade, who condemned slavery on moral grounds. They wanted to end slavery not for the well being of African Americans but for the new job opportunities for other Americans.
Mason Dixon line
A line between 4 states forming part of the borders of PA. Used as a line to distinguish the free north from the slave south.
Underground Railroad/Harriet Tubman
The Underground railroad was used by Northerners to help slaves from south escape. Harriet Tubman was an African American abolitionist that helped many slaves escape the south. She was never captured and this system showed how many southerners were abolitionists as well.
Commodore Matthew Perry
The Brother of a hero of the battle of Lake Erie in 1813. Participated in a mission in Japan. He returned in February 1854 and persuaded the Japanese to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa providing proper treatment of shipwrecked sailors.
John L. O'Sullivan
He was an American columnist who coined the phrase Manifest destiny to support the annexation of Oregon and Texas. He was an advocate for the democratic party and served on the New York assembly where he attempted to destroy the death penalty and worked hard on establishing a New York public school system. His voice as a columnist helped to get Polk elected as president and sway public opinion for the annexation of Oregon and Texas.
An after-thought Vice President to William Henry Harrison in the election of 1840. He was a democrat but switched over to the Whig Party because he didn't like Andrew Jackson. After Harrison died after a month in office, Tyler took over office and because he was a Democrat in his principle he was against many of the things the Whigs tried to do. He became the first Vice President to take office because of a presidents death. __________ essentially became a president without a party which made for an interesting term, as many of the laws purposed by his own party were vetoed by him. By the end of his term neither the Democrats nor the Whigs supported him and he eventually became a member of the Confederate Congress during the Civil War which is interesting for a former president of the U.S.
"Third War with England"
This was a war of words beginning with journalists from Britain and America over criticism of aspects of American culture. It was fueled by minor hostilities between the two hereditary enemies similar to sparks that start a high school fight. The Third War With England seemed to be a few minor hostilities fueled by the media and angry Americans who are always looking for a fight with Britain.
This was an American steamer carrying supplies across the Niagara river when it was attacked by a determined British force. It caught fire and nearly plummeted over Niagara Falls. The incident nearly forced war between the two nations again, thankfully neither country acted pre-maturely and three years later the incident was undetermined and tensions eased.
Dispute over the Maine boundary. The British wanted to build a road from Halifax to Quebec that ran through land already claimed by Maine. Fights started on both sides and they both got their local militia. It could have been a war, but it never preceded that far. The British's surrender of 6500 square miles in Minnesota proved costly, as the priceless Mesabi iron was later found within this territory.
Lone Star Republic
Texas territory. Mexico refused to recognize Texas's independence and regarded it as a province in revolt, to be conquered later. Texas's courting of Britain forced America to annex the territory.
James K. Polk
First "dark horse" presidential candidate. He defeated Henry Clay in 1844 election. Developed a successful four-point program which lowered tariffs, restored the independent treasury, and led to the acquisition of California and Oregon.
In increasing numbers, Americans flooded the Oregon territory in the 1840's. The popularity of Oregon led to the "Fifty-four, forty, or fight" conflict. Without this movement, I would not have been able to spend half my childhood days hunting for buffalo and traveling all the way from St. Louis to Sante Fe (only to die from cholera while crossing the Sierra Nevadas).
The Manifest Destiny was an emotional upsurge in American believing they should spread their democratic government over the entire North America and possibly extend into South America. The campaign of 1844 relied heavily on this new surge. James Polk represented the Democrats while Henry Clay was nominated by the Whigs. The campaign and mudslinging was as harsh and spread all over the continent.
Polk's "Four Point Program"
Polk's goals, which he successfully achieved in less than four years, to lower tariff, restore the independent treasury, acquire California, and to settle the Oregon dispute. Polk's persistent efforts resulted in a massive tract of land being added to America through the acquisition of California and found a reasonable middle ground on the Oregon dispute, while avoiding bloodshed and maintaining peace.
"Fifty-four, forty, or fight"
The shouts of Americans who advocated the attainment of all of the Oregon territory, up to the line _________, even if it meant war with Britain. This cry reflects the growing hunger for land in the already rapidly growing America. People asked, "Why all of Texan but not all of Oregon?" Americans became so land-hungry that they were willing to sacrifice the security of they're country through war for more land. However Polk handled the dispute in a dignified manner, avoiding bloodshed, while still acquiring a respectable portion of the land.
The wish of some Americans, particularly Eastern Democrats, to annex all of Mexico into the United Sates. They believe this would not only be beneficial through the gaining of more land, but it would also result in security of the region. This is a great example of Manifest Destiny. Also it brought up great controversy because annexing all of Mexico into the Union would mean giving citizenship to millions of Mexicans.
Polk dispatched him to Mexico City as minister in 1845 to present a maximum offer of $25 million for California and the land to the east. __________ was not even permitted to present his offer by the proud Mexican people. This rejection frustrated Polk and forced him to prepare a showdown. He proposed that on the basis of this rejection, along with unpaid claims, Congress should declare war on Mexico. However, two cabinet members felt that Mexico should fire the first shots, and they did in 1846.
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
1848 yielded Texas to west Oregon and California. The United States paid about $15 million for land and assumed claims of the citizens instead of Mexico. Condemned by both opponents who wanted all and no part of Mexico. An ignorant misunderstanding.
General Winfield Scott
Commanded the main expedition of Mexico city. Considered hero of the war 1812. He had everything against him but regardless he fought all the way. One of the most brilliant campaigns in American military. He was the most distinguished general by 1848.
Father Junipero Serra
A major Canadian Franciscan friar that founded the mission chain in California. He was a great promoter of the spread of Christianity because of his missions.
Bear Flag Revolt
Bear flag of California during the Mexican American war revolt against Mexican authorities. The raising of the flag symbolized the new republic resulting in it becoming the state flag of California.
Fateful amendment that stated slavery will not exist in territory from Mexico. It was another North vs. South battle of the congress. Came to symbolize the issue of slavery in different territories.
A term used by the south to describe their importance to the country and rest of the world because of its dependence on their cotton (about 75% came from the southern U.S. It was also somewhat a threat as it exclaimed that if a civil war were to erupt the rest of the world would loose out on their enormous supply of cotton. "King Cotton" in essence gave the south a feeling of superiority; an burst in their ego, that caused the oligarchy elites to feel powerful in the eyes of the nation. Naturally they did not feel they needed adjust to the demands of the abolitionists from the North thus this inflexibility was one of the keys to the start of the civil war.
This referred to the few members of the wealthy class in the south who owned hundreds of slaves and lived on plantations. There was only a small class that made up most of the political power in the south which made it difficult to force them to listen to the demands of the north. The fact that so few made up the political elite class of the south made it in fact an aristocracy which is far from the ideal of democracy showing that the south was indeed splitting from the Union even before war was declared.
"Slaves of the Slave System"
Refers to the south's unhealthy dependency on cotton for its economy. This was very bad for the land which only made them want more so they bought out the small farmers and got greedy by over expanding. The fact that the South was in fact a slave of their own system is one reason why they won and started the civil war. Because they were so greedy it made them want as many slaves as possible to capitalize on the cotton, but eventually they had nothing left and could not sustain a nation.
This was a common term to refer to a majority of the population in the south that was poor, but still supported slavery out of sheer ignorance. They had no money or hope of owning a slave but still supported slavery for two reasons. The first was that they liked being socially above someone and two because they worshipped the plantation owners and wanted to have the opportunity to dream to obtain the lifestyle. These "rednecks" are a large reason for the support of succession by the south because without their support there would only be around two percent of the population that wanted slavery.
"Hillbillies" "Crackers" and "Clayeaters"
Deserved names for a majority of the south who did not own slaves and was extremely lazy. Later reports have revealed that they may in fact of been sick. These Hillbillies were just another example of how little of the actual population in the south actually owned slaves. It shows the cruelty of these people just wanted slavery to make them look better.
A reference to free African-Americas, who were prohibited from working in certain occupations and forbidden from testifying against whites in court. The designation of blacks as the "third race" set the standard for racial interaction for the next hundred years.
"Sold Down the River"
Thousand of blacks from the soil-exhausted slave states of the old south, especially tobacco-depleted Virginia, were sold to the Cotton Belt. Slave auctions accompanied by this move from old south to new were brutal sights. Harriet Beecher Stowe seized the emotional power of these inhumane auctions and put it at the heart of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
The Deep South that stretched from S. Carolina and Georgia to the new southwest states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Within this region cotton had become the exclusive means of agricultural profit. Because the concentration of the African work force caused very few immigrants to enter this region, it was the most Anglo-Saxon in America.
Reference to how slavery contradicts everything laid out by Jefferson and the rest of the Founding Fathers. The ideals of The Declaration of Independence caused many Northerners to rise against the institution of slavery.
Gabriel/Demark Vassey/Nat Turner
All three rebelled against the slave system. Two of their plots were foiled, but one succeeded and killed over sixty Virginians. Reprisals were swift and bloody. These rebellions show how the ideals of democracy infiltrated the slave population, who began to realize their rights as humans.
The American Colonization Society
One of the first abolitionist groups which focused on transporting blacks back to Africa. Because this was a strong step toward Civil War, and also the abolishing of slavery. This group was effecting, not only spreading beliefs of abolitionism, but also taking affirmative action in the transportation of slaves back to Africa.
Theodore Weld/Arthur & Lewis Tappan
_____ was evangelized and inspired by Finney, and went to Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, trip payed for by _________, wealthy and devout New York merchants. ____1____ and several other students were expelled for organizing a debate over slavery, and then fanned out across Northwest preaching the anti-slavery gospel. ___1___ also assembled one of the most effective abolitionist tracts, American Slavery As It Is. Yet another step toward abolition. ____1____'s American Slavery As It Is greatly influenced Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.
William Lloyd Garrison
Emotionally high-strung, spiritual child of the Second Great Awakening. He published in Boston the first issue of his militantly antislavery newspaper The Liberator. Most conspicuous, vilified, and nonresistant of the abolitionists. It was his relentlessness that led to his shattering abolitionists blast. His work led to that of other abolitionists such as Wendell Phillips and David Walker.
William Lloyd Garrison's antislavery newspaper published in Boston. The strident tones of this paper and Garrison's lack of toleration led to its success in causing an abolitionist boom.
Wendell Phillips/David Walker
Phillips was a Bostonian of strict principle and known as "abolition's golden trumpet." He would not eat cane sugar or wear cotton clothing since they were both produced by souther slaves. Walker was a black abolitionist whose work Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World advocated a bloody end to white supremacy. Yet two more abolitionists leading to the Civil War and eventually the abolishment of slavery. Influenced by the work of William Lloyd garrison.
Known as Isabella. Held her audiences spellbound with her deep resonant voice and religious pass. She condemned the sin of slavery with her speeches, and influenced opinions.
Elijah P. Lovejoy
Reverend of Alton Illinois. He didn't argue against slavery but questioned the value of women. He was very unpopular and killed by a mob. This foreshadows the civil war and shows northern opinions.
The greatest of the black abolitionists who escaped from bondage in 1838. His autobiography called Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass had a lot of influence on people. He publicly burned a copy of the constitution saying it was "an agreement with hell"
Liberty Party/ Free soil party
Political abolitionists who supported the war as the price of emancipation. High minded and courageous. These parties later became the Republican Party in the 1850's, mainly northerners
Slavery as a "positive good"
The belief from pro slavery whites stating that slavery was supported by the authority of the bible and the wisdom of Aristotle. These curious proslavery arguments only widened the chasm between a backward-looking South and a forward-looking North.
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