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Genetic Engineering

Biology course in learning what genetic engineering is
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What is DNA?
A set of plans for building different parts of a cell
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Why is DNA called a blueprint?
Because it's like plans to build something
What is the twisted ladder shape of the DNA molecule called?
Double helix
Name the four bases found in DNA
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine
A DNA is made up of _____ which make up ____ which make up sentences (fill in the blanks)
Letters and Words
What are these sentences called?
Genes
What is a gene?
Instruction mannuals that are directions for building proteins
What is the protein that blood cells use?
Hemoglobin
How many chromosomes are in a human?
46 or 23 pairs
How many chromosomes are in a mosquito?
6 or 3 pairs
How many chromosomes are in a carp?
104 or 52 pairs
How is a protein like a car engine?
Each part looks and is different and all do separate jobs to make it work
What are receptor proteins responsible for picking up?
The signal and passing it
What does each gene in DNA encode information for making?
Individual protein
Once in the cytoplasm, the ____ reads the message (fill in the blank)
Ribsosome
What is heredity?
The passing of traits from parent to child
How many chromosomes does a child receive from its mother? How about father?
23 from his father and 23 from his mother
What is a zygote?
When a sperm and egg cell join and create a single cell
Each child inherits a ____ set of chromosomes (fill in the blank)
23
Give three examples of physical traits
Hair color, eye color and height
A dog catching a bone is an example of what kind of trait?
Behavioral traits
What is an allele?
The set of information from each form of a trait
What is the base pair rule? Which bases pair with which bases?
Adenine pairs with thymine while cytosine pairs with guanine
What is transcription?
Copying the gene sequence into messenger RNA
What is translation?
When the ribosome reads the mRNA sequence and translates it into the amino acid sequence of the protein
Fireflies glow to attract a ____ and to avoid ____ (fill in the blanks)
Fireflies glow to attract a mate and avoid predators.
What gene does RNA polymerase attract to?
LUC gene
When transcription is complete, the LUC gene and mRNA moves to where?
Cytoplasm
The ribosome interprets the mRNA to produce a string of ____? (fill in the blank)
Amino Acids
What must the string of amino acids be in order to become a functioning luciferase enzyme?
Bend and fold into a specific three dimensional shape
What do the enzymes bind to in order to create light?
A chemical called luciferin
Explain a hybrid
Usually bigger and better and are stronger than their parents. Sometimes bred for certain traits.
When a gene is changed it is said to be ____? (fill in the blank)
Mutated
A mutation in the hemoglobin gene can cause what disorder?
Sickle cell anemia
If you stretched DNA from a cell out, how long would it be?
Three meters
List four qualities in a plant that scientists selectively breed for plants
1) plants with seeds that produce
2) plants with the largest head of grain
3) plants with the juiciest berries
4) plants with the most disease resistant
What did our ancestors increase the frequency of?
Desired alleles within a population
What is inbreeding?
The mating between closely related individuals
What does inbreeding result in?
Offspring that are homozygous for most traits
What is the danger of inbreeding?
That the two closely related indivuals will carry a harmful recessive allele
What is genetic engineering?
A faster and more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a specific allele in a population
What method does genetic engineering involve?
Cleaving DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or different species
What are restriction enzymes and what do they do?
Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence
What is a vector?
When DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell - They may be biological or mechanical
What is recombinant DNA technology?
made by connecting or re connecting fragments of DNA from different sources - recombinant DNA is inserted into a host organism's chromosomes and that organism will use this foreign DNA as if it were its own
Where does functional DNA come from?
Plants and animals - referred to as transgenic organisms
What are the three steps in the process of making recombinant DNA?
1) Isolate foreign DNA fragments that will be inserted
2) Attach the DNA fragment to a carrier
3) Transfer into the host organism
Are restriction enzymes very specific to where they cleave DNA?
Yes because they can't just cut between any two bases of DNA. If that happened then one persons DNA would be exactly the same as someone elses
What is the purpose of agarose gel?
It acts as a molecular strainer allowing smaller pieces of DNA to move through and move faster than larger pieces
What is gel electrophoresis?
The process of moving molecules within an electric cuttent
How does size affect the movement of DNA fragments?
The smaller fragments move faster and more easily while the longer fragments move slower and not as easily
What is the purpose of the nylon membrane?
Suck up the DNA as a liquid
What is the purpose of placing the X-RAY film on top of the nylon membrane?
The probes will expose corresponding areas from the nylon membrane on the X-RAY film
What is a plasmid?
A ring like genetic material or structure that is made of DNA and acts as a vector that will carry the human insulin gene and transfer it into the bacteria cell
How does recombinant DNA play a rule in the production of human insulin by bacteria?
By replicating the bacteria cells which replicates the insulin gene and expresses the human insulin by translating and transcribing the human insulin protein hormone
What happens when you cut DNA and bacteria with the same restriction enzyme?
The base pairs will match up
What happens when you cut DNA and bacteria with a different restriction enzyme?
The base pairs don't match up
What is ecoli?
A bacteria found in food
What holds the DNA and bacteria pieces together?
Hydrogen bonds
What does the power source do in Gel Electrophoresis?
It turns on a current or charge that allows smaller pieces to fall through
What are some treatments from the products of recombinant DNA?
Treatments for diabetes, growth defects, burns and ulcers, cancer, improving weight gain in cattle, breaking down of cellulose for animal feeds, ovarian cancer, viral infections, viral hepatitis, anemia, hemophilia and heart attacks
What are sticky ends in the process of cutting the DNA with restriction enzymes?
Free parts that match with other bases
How has diabetes been treated throughout history?
With a very strict diet that was low in calories and carbohydrates
How is diabetes treated today?
With recombinant DNA technology
What is artificial selection?
Where a person takes two organism and forces them to mate for a certain result - man made organism
What is grafting?
Taking a plant or pieces from a plant and growing it somewhere else
What is regeneration?
Regrowth of DNA or a body part (ex: Starfish)
What is natural selection?
Organisms who choose themselves to whom the want to mate with
What is mitotic cell division?
A division resulting in an exact cell copy that copies over and over again
What is DNA extraction?
When DNA is taken or extracted out of the nucleus in the cell
For what purpose is gel electrophoresis used?
To create a unique fingerprint and identify an individual
What is a benefit of inbreeding?
Your result of an organism is exactly what you want
What is a drawback of inbreeding?
If there are two recessive genes then there could be a possible mutation