How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

697 terms

US History

STUDY
PLAY
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.
Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
John Winthrop
John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
Separatists
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Congregational Church
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves
Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Roger Williams
A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Half-way covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
Saybrook Platform
organized town churches into county associations that sent delegates to annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut
Leif Ericsson
late 900's early 1000's son of Eric the Red; sailed to North America in about 1000 and explored what is today know as Newfoundland
Bartholomew Dias
Dias was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.
Amerigo Vespucci
italian cartographer that sailed under the Spanish flag repeated Columbus' initial attemp to sail west to Asia; he explored the coast of Africa thinking that it was Asia; he made his next voyage commissioned by Portugal and sailed along the coast of S America concluding that it could not be Asia; his discoveries were published and the new continent was named after him
Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer who led the first expedition to Florida.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama
Hernando Cortez
A brash and determined Spanish adventurer, Hernando Cortez crossed the Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with six hundred men, seventeen horses and ten canons. Within three years, Cortez had taken captive the Aztec emperor Montezuma, conquered the rich Aztec empire and found Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. (p.508-510)
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Francisco Pizzaro
He was from Portugal he went to Peru in 1532; he crushed Incas; took lot of money
Hernando de Soto
1539-1542 Explored Gulf coast from Florida to Mississippi River.
Giovanni de Verrazano
1524 Explored coast from Carolina to Nova Scotia, entered New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
1540-1542 Discovered the Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Panhandle areas Texas and Kansas
Jacques Carter
1534 Explored the St. Lawrence Gulf and River to Montreal
Samuel de Champlain
up St. Lawrence, discovered Indians, established fur trade with the Indians.
Pere Marquette & Louis Joliet
France 1673 Explored Mackinac Strait, Lake Michigan, Green Bay, Wisconsin River, and Mississippi River to the Aransas River
Robert, Sieur de LaSalle
France 1682 Went from Great lakes to the Miss. River and down to its mouth.
John Cabot
England 1497, 1498 Sailed along the coast from Newfound to Maine, sailed from Newfoundland to Cheseapeake
Sebastian Cabot
England 1498 Explored NE Coast
Sir Francis Drake
England 1509 Second circumnavigation of the worlds
Henry Hudson
Netherlands 1609-1611 Explored the Hudson River and the Hudson bay
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Virginia colony
This colony got a charter, or right to organize a settlement in 1606. Jamestown was the first town in this new colony.
Headright system
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Bacon's Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
Culperer's Rebellion
Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted.
Georgia
Founded in 1733 at Savannah by James Ogelithorpe for human rehabilitation, initially proprietary.
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia
Carolinas
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Charleston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
Pennsylvania
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers
Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
Holy experiment
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
New York
Founded in 1624 at Albany and New Amsterdam by the Dutch, taken by Duke of York.
Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Crops in Middle Colonies
The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade. Piladelphia was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population of 10,000. It was the capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.
John Bartram
an early American botanist and horticulturalist. Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world."
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
George Whitefield
succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America, journey to colonies sparked Great Awakening
William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
Gilbert Tennant
An American Presbyterian minister who delivered a sermon in 1740, "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry", in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. This resulted in a schism in the Presbyterian church in 1741, between the "Old Lights, and the "New Lights" (Led by Tennant).
Lord Baltimore
1634- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Admiralty Courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Molasses Act
A British law passed in 1733 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
Woolens Act
Law allowed no finished fur products to be made in America. (bad)
Currency Act
restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)
Poor Richard's Almanac
1732-1758 containing many sayings called from thinkers of the ages emphasizing such home spun virtues as thrift industry morality and common sense Frankin wrote it
Phillis Wheatley
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)
Ann Bradstreet
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
Habeaus Corpus Act
: Latin meaning: "to have a body" gave every prisoner the right to obtain and writ or document ordering that the prisoner be brought before a judge to specify the changes against the prisoner.
Board of Trade
commissioned by King William III of England to supervise commerce, recommend appointments of colonial officials, and review colonial laws to see that none interfered with trade or conflicted with the laws of England
Robert Walpole
Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
Salutary Neglect
british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
Town meetings
A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town's voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.
Zenger trial
This 1735 trial of a New York newspaper editor for criticising a British-appointed governor. It resulted in a not guilty verdict, since the articles were based on fact, not slander. This acquittal was the first important victory for freedom of the press in the colonies. Andrew Hamilton, a well-known Philadelphia lawyer, represented the defendant at no charge.
Difference between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.
Queen Anne's War
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.
Peace of Utrecht
Ended Queen Anne's War. Undermined France's power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
War of Jenkin's Ear
It began because of Spanish atrocities to British merchants in the West Indies
King George's War
1744 and 1748. England and Spain were in conflict with French. New England captured French Bastion at Louisburg on Cape Brenton Island. Had to abandon it once peace treaty ended conflict.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed in the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Fort Duquesne
French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
Wolfe
British Commander General ________and his soldiers won the deciding battle of the french and indian war by scaling the cliffs that surrounded Quebec, Canada.
Montcalm
Military officer at Quebec City.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Pontiac's Rebellion
a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
Writs of Assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
James Otis
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.
Paxton Boys
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Grenville
Britich treasurer, wanted to inforce Navigation Laws, said if the laws were ignored the colonist's trial would be in England without their peirs (ignored rights of Englishmen)
Sugar Act
Law passed in 1764 that modified the 1733 Molasses Act thus reducing the amount of taxes collected on molasses and sugar, but increasing the measures to enforce the Act
Non-importation
the act of not importing or using certain goods
Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
Virginia Resolves
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Patrick Henry
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
External taxes
Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.
Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
The Association
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered
Boston Massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
Crispus Attucks
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
Battle of the Alamance
May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion of the Carolina Regulators at Alamance Creek. The leaders of the Regulators were executed.
Gaspee incident
A schooner was beached in Providence, RI, This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. It was burned down by local inhabitants. It greatly angered the British and showed how militant the colonials were becoming.
Governor Thomas Hutchinson
Governor of Massachusets; hates and is afraid of The Sons of Liberty; allows the militarty to maintain a strong presence in Boston
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Lord North
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Quebec Act
designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians into British America; Colonists feared a precedent had been established in the nonrepresentative government in Quebec; they resented the expansion of Quebec's territory, which they had been denied access by the Proclamation of 1763; they were offended by the Crown's recognition of Catholicism, since most Americans were Protestants
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Suffolk Resolves
declared colonial resistance to Coercive acts and announced preparations for a military defense against British tyranny. Most famous of many meetings vigorously protesting the Intolerable Acts enacted by the British Parliament the same year. Decided they would boycott British goods, ignore punitive measures, support colonial government, and urge colonies to raise militias.
Galloway Plan
1774 proposed the formation of a colonial union under a royally appointed president-general and popularly elected council. this colonial union would be able to pass laws subject to the approval of the the president-general and parliament. this plan was rejected by the continental congress
Lexington and Concord
first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300
Valley Forge
Washington retreated to this place in Pennsylvania for the winter after the Battle of Trenton
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Second Treatise on Government
a work written by John Locke before the Glorious Revolution that was read as justification for it. Locke described the relationship of a king and his people as a bilateral contract. If the king broke the contract, the people, by whom Locke meant the privileged and the powerful, had the right to depose him. The Glorious Revolution established a framework of government by and for the governemed that seemed to bear ou the arguments of this book
Richard Henry Lee
Member of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Edmund Burke
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America
Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Robert Morris
A financer of the revolution. First Treasurer of the U.S. Signed the Constitution and the Dec. of Indep.
John Paul Jones
Patriot naval leader who commanded the American ship Bonhomme Richard, which defeated the British ship Serapis in 1779.
French Alliance of 1778
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn't do anything to help. The U.S. didn't fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I.
Battle at Saratoga
battle that colonist won that proved to the French that they were ready for their alliance, morale boost
Yorktown, Cornwallis
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
When: January 16, 1786 Where: Virginia Significance: Written by Thomas Jefferson and passed by the Virginia General Assembly. It was a principle of the separation of church and state, and an example of the first amendment, freedom of religion.
Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
202. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles' weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn't keep the country united. The Articles' only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
Preamble of Constitution
"We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
Logrolling
Mutual aid and vote trading among legislators
Riders
amendments to bills, often in the form of appropriations, that sometimes have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and many times are considered to be pork barrel legislation
Quorum
The minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
Amendment process
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of the members of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures, or special state conventions elected for that purpose.
Supremacy Clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which declares the Constitution, all federal laws passed pursuant to its provisions, and all federal treaties, to be the "supreme law of the land," which override any state laws or state constitutional provisions to the contrary.
Ratification
9 out of 13
checks and balances
Each of the three branches of government "checks" (ie, blocks) the power of the other two, so no one branch can become too powerful. The president (executive) can veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and also chooses the judges in the Supreme Court (judiciary). Congress can overturn a presidential veto if 2/3 of the members vote to do so. The Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
This treaty between the U.S. and Spain would have given the U.S. special privileges at Spanish ports in exchange for giving Spain exclusive rights to the Mississippi River. The U.S. needed access to the Mississippi more than they needed privileged trade with Spain, so this treaty was never signed.
Shay's Rebellion
a rebellion by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays, against Boston creditors. it began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
Annapolis Convention
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
The Spirit of Laws
is a treatise on political theory first published anonymously by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in 1748; He felt that seperation of powers was best
Second Treatise on Government
a work written by John Locke before the Glorious Revolution that was read as justification for it. Locke described the relationship of a king and his people as a bilateral contract. If the king broke the contract, the people, by whom Locke meant the privileged and the powerful, had the right to depose him. The Glorious Revolution established a framework of government by and for the governemed that seemed to bear ou the arguments of this book
Thomas Hobbes
Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Great Compromise
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Connecticut Plan
The Connecticut Plan called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the Compromise Plan.
North-South Compromise
The North was given full federal protection of trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the House.
The Federalist #10
This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good).
Judiciary Act 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges
Tariff of 1789
designed to protect domestic manufacturing, discouraged competition from abroad, compelled foreign competitors to raise prices. provided gov with revenue
Excise taxes
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program
Elastic Clause
(Necessary and Proper Clause, Implied Clause), the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Federalists
believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution
Democratic Republicans
believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These documents drafted by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the U.S. Constitution. These resolutions affirmed the principle of states' rights
12th amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Gilbert Stuart
United States painter best known for his portraits of George Washington (1755-1828)
Charles Wilson Peale
He was one of the outstanding painters of the early American republic, and he painted more than a thousand portraits, mostly of American Revolution leaders. He founded the nation's first museum and first art school. His 1772 portrait of George Washington is recognized as the first authentic likeness of Washington. He continued to add paintings of national leaders like John Adams (1791-1794), Alexander Hamilton (1791), and James Madison (1792). His likenesses were realistic, accurate in detail, and sensitive to the sitter's personality.
Genet
french ambassador to recruit americans for the war; kicked out by Washington which angered the French
XYZ Affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Rule of 1756
A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both of two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one of the nations. This justified Britain's seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
Jay's Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Pickney's Treaty
granted us right to navigate the mississippi and deposite goods at new orleans
James Wilkinson
Wilkinson had been an officer in the Continental Army, and later held several positions relating to the Army, such as secretary of the board of war and clothier general to the army. He was one of the Commissioners appointed to receive the Purchase Louisiana from the French, and served as Governor of Louisiana from 1805-1806. He informed Pres. Jefferson of Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, and was the primary witness against Burr at his treason trial, even though Wilkinson was himself implicated in the plot.
Anthony Wayne
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
Barbary Wars
- The Barbary Wars (or Tripolitan Wars) were two wars between the United States of America and Barbary States in North Africa in the early 19th century. At issue was the pirates' demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea. American naval power attacked the pirate cities and extracted concessions of fair passage from their rulers.
Rutgers v. Washington
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to sue for damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor's Court over the seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. It was the first time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent for the later U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
Trevett v. Weaden
1786-87 . Acts passed by the Rhode Island Legislature imposed heavy fines on those who refused to accept the state's depreciated currency at face value. Weeden was acquitted on the grounds that the acts were unconstitutional.
Treaty of Ghent
1814 - armistice, acknowledge a draw in war of 1812.
American system
program proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.
changes in land prices in early 1800s
The Land Acts of 1800 and 1820, and the Preemptive Acts of the 1830s and 1840s lowered the price of land and made it easier for prospective settlers to acquire it. This encouraged people to move west.
Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a financial genius and served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 - 1814 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison. He advocated free trade and opposed the Federalists' economic policies. Gallatin was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
Justice Samuel Chase
A Federalist judge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary War hero, and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration to the Maryland grand jury. Chase was acquited by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
Barbary War
Jefferson response to pirate attacks on USA trading ships on north african coast, after failing to achieve most military objectives administration sighned 1805 treaty ending war
Treaty of Sam Ildefonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Toussaint L'Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
Burr expedition, treason trial
After the duel, Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the territories. Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr's punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
Zebulon Pike
Explored the upper Mississippi River, the Arkansas River and parts of present day Colorado and New Mexico from 1805-1807. In Nov. 1806, Pike viewed a mountain peak rising above the Colorado plains. Continuing southward, Pile entered into Spanish territory and Spanish troops soon arrested pike and his men. When he was let go, he managed to hid a map in the barrel of his gun.
Major Long
Major Long explored the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
Orders in council
beginning in 1806, edicts placed by the London government that closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping, including America, unless the vessels first stopped at a British port
Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Chesapeake-Leopard affair
1807 - British tried to look for deserters in Chesapeake, then fired on it. U.S. respond by expelling all British ships from its ports until an apology.
Embargo of 1807
Laws meant to punish British for the attacks and impressionism of American soldiers and to ensure punishment for those who atempted to defy the embargo. Was eventually repealed as it hurt the economy by severely damaging American exportation of goods -an alternative to war; prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port in hopes o fstopping Britain from violating rights; backfired and brought economic harship to U.S.; repealed in 1809
Non-intercourse act
passed in 1809, allowed Americans to trade with all nations except britian and France
Erskine agreement
1809 - The U.S. offered to cease all trade with France and resume trade with Britain if the British would stop the impressment of American sailors. The British did not agree to this, so this proposal never went into effect.
Macon's Bill No.2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Tecumseh
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
War of 1812 events
Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war
Hartford Convention
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Convention of 1818
Britain and the United States agreed to the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory between Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains. The two nations also agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon country for ten years.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Adams Onis Treaty
Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established judiciary as a branch of government equal to legislative and executive; established judicial review, which allows Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
Tallmadge Amendment
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
Thomas Amendment
bill that would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region; never activated
Samuel Slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Interchangeable parts
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.
Lowell
revolutionized textile industry, made successful factory in MA
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
National Road
First national road building project funded by Congress.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Panama Conference
Summoned by the Venezuelan revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy toward Spain. Two delegates were sent by the U.S., but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were uncomfortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between U.S. and South America.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Age of the Common man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
Jacksonian Democracy
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Worchester v. Georgia
supreme court ruled that georgia law could not be enforced in the cherokee nation
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government.
Whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Election of 1832
Jackson v Clay, Jackson wins. Political parties will hold nominating conventions where the people decide who the nominee is. First time a third party was in an election, Anti-Masonic party.
Jackson's removal of deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-Focos
Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
Webster Hayne debate
Hayne first responded to Daniel Webster's argument of states' rights versus national power, with the idea of nullification. Webster then spent 2 full afternoons delivering his response which he concluded by saying that "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable"
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Nullification crisis
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate
Compromise tariff of 1833
It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Specie Circular
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Brigham Young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Brook Farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
Oneida
The Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages. Today, the town is known for manufacturing silverware.
New Harmony
This was a society that focused on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.q
Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Lyceum movement
Developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, and entertainment. This movement was directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
National Trade Union
Unions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
court decided that unions were not conspiracies and it gave workers the right to protest and strike against companies
Oberlin College
already considered crazy for educating blacks, this school in Ohio began educating women in 1837; (see the section on Finney for more info)
Horace Mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Irish, German Immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Seneca Falls
The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
Cult of true womanhood
While many women were in favor of the women's movement, some were not. Some of these believed in preserving the values of "______________": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness. These opponents of the women's movement referred to their ideas as the "____________________________."
Marbury v. Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
Fletcher v. Peck
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person's property rights. Since the land grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
This 1819 Marshall Court U.S. Supreme Court decisions to interpret the contracts clause in Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. The case arose from a dispute in New Hampshire over the state's attempt to take over Dartmouth College. By construing the Contract Clause as a means of protecting corporate charters from state interventions, Marshall derived a significant constitutional limitation on state authority.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Congress has implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, and state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government
Cohens v. Virginia
Cohens found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets and convicted, but taken to supreme court, and Marshall asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme court decisions.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Horace Greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
Stephen Austin
Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans
Battle of Alamo
200 texans trapped at Alamo in san Antonio by Santa ana's army. Santa ana wipes all of the Texans out after a 13 day siege
Battle of San Jacinto
(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles noth of the Rio Gannde. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk's orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor's forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Mexican War
War declared in 1846 after Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande into Texas. Was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which gave the U.S. Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million to Mexico
General Winfield Scott
United States Army lieutenant general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. He was responsible for defeating Santa Anna. He also conceived the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan.
Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago)
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
John Jacob Astor
Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.
Oregon Fever
1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
Oregon Territory
territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818
Wilmot Proviso
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Gasden Purchase
land is the southern part of New Mexico and Arizona (south of Gilla River) $10,000,000 was cost. Named for ambassador to Mexico who made the deal. Bought for a future railroad location (flat land) that would go west to California
Factory Girls
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
Elias Howe
United States inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers (including Isaac M. Singer) (1819-1867)
Clipper ships
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
Cyrus Field
American businessman who laid the first telegraph wire across the Atlantic. This cut down the time it took for a message to be sent from Europe to American and vice-versa.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Samuel F.B. Morse
Invented a faster way to communicate, a telegraph which sent message from one machine to another along a wire.
Walker Tariff
The 1846 Walker tariff was a Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed "Black Tariff" of 1842 under the tenth president, John Tyler. It was one of the lowest tariffs in American history and primarily supported by Southern Democrats who had little industry in their districts. The act is named after Robert J. Walker, a Mississippi politician who served as Secretary of the Treasury under president James K. Polk. The tariff's reductions (35% to 25%) coincided with Britain's repeal of the Corn Laws earlier that year, leading to a decline in protection in both and an increase in trade.
Independent Treasury System
The act removed the federal government from involvement with the nation's banking system by establishing federal depositories for public funds instead of keeping the money in national, state, or private banks. This was the system the government adopted until the federal reserve act of 1910.
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Nat Turner
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery (gag rule)
Tredegar Iron Works
the most important single manufacturing enterprise in the old south. it used mostly slave labor to produce cannon, shot, and shell, axes, saws, bridge materials, boilers, and steam engines, including locomotives
Mountain Whites in the South
Rednecks. Usually poor, aspired to be successful enough to own slaves. Hated Blacks and rich Whites. Made up much of the Confederate Army, fighting primarily for sectionalism and states' rights.
King Cotton
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
Free soil party
Ardent antislavery men in the North, distrusting both Cass and Taylor, organized the Free soil party. they came out foursquare for the wilmot proviso and against slavery in the territories. Going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements.
John Sutter
A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Thirty six thirty line
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36º30' N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Bleeding Kansas
: was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
Pottawatomie Massacre
When John Brown (abolitionist) and followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers in Kansas then mutilated their bodies to scare other slave supporters and to keep slavery supporters from moving into Kansas.
New England Emigrant Aid Company
Antislavery organization in the North that sent out thousands of pioneers to the Kansas-Nebraska territory to thwart the Southerners and abolitionize the West.
Summer-Brooks affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
Lecompton Constitution
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Dred Scott decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
supported states' rights against powers of the national government
Freeport Doctrine
During the 2nd Lincoln-Douglas debates for a senate seat in Freeport Illinois. Douglas said that slavery could be prevented by any territory by the passing of laws against slavery.
Panic of 1857
A notable sudden collapse in the economy caused by over speculation in railroads and lands, false banking practices, and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Since it did not effect the South as bad as the North, they gained a sense of superiority.
The impending crisis of the South
A book written by Hinton Helper. Helper hated both slavery and blacks and used this book to try to prove that non-slave owning whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. The non-aristocrat from N.C. had to go to the North to find a publisher that would publish his book.
Crittenden Compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
South advantage in Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
North advantage in Civil War
Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Monitor and Merrimac
During McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, the North's blockade strategy was placed in jeopardy by the Confederate ironclad ship the Merrimac (a former Union ship, rebuilt and named the Virginia) that could attack and ship the Union's wooden ships almost at will; the Union got an ironclad of its own, the Monitor, which fought a five-hour duel with the southern ironclad near Hampton Roads, Va; Monitor stopped the Merrimac from seriously challenging the naval blockade
Union generals
Grant, McClellan, Sherman, Meade
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Trent affair
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
10 percent plan
It was a reconstruction plan that decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the union when 10 percent of voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be erection of a state gov. and then purified regime. (Lincoln)
Wade Davis Manifesto
1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
Black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Freedman's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Civil Rights Act 1866
provided guarantees for African-American voting rights in the South
13th amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
15th amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Purchase of Alaska
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
sharecropping
system of farming in which a farmer tends some portion of a planter's land and receives a share of the crop at harvest time as payment
Hiram Revels
African American minister who was elected to serve in the Senate; one of the first blacks to serve in the Senate
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
Greenbacks
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Species Resumption Act
1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.
Greenbacks-Labor Party
Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Half-breeds
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party. Between stalwarts and Mugwumps were the Halfbreeds, who were less patronage-oriented than the Stalwarts, but not as reform-minded as the Mugwumps.
Mugwumps
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
McKinley Tariff
- set the average ad valorem tariff rate for imports to the United States at 50%, and protected agriculture. Its chief proponent was Congressman and future President McKinley. In return for its passage, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was given Republican support. It raised the prices in the US under Benjamin Harrison and hurt the common folk, which may have cost him his presidency in the next elections
Credit Mobilier
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Robber Barons
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
John Rockefeller
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
Horizontal consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Henry Clay Frick
was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.
Vertical consolidation
bringing together the various stages of production, from acquiring the raw materials to the sale of the finished product
Charles Schwab
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
Alexander Graham Bell
inventor of telephone
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement and the Hull House. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
Chinese Exclusion law
Chinese Exclusion Law 1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who would work for less pay.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Chautauqua movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
Morril Act
1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.
Hatch Act
Federal statute barring federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds.
Glided Age
Term used to describe a time of both tremendous wealth and poverty in the late 1800's
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Mississippi Plan
Adopted by MS in 1875 and later by other southern states. The southern democrats wanted to undermine blacks, who were now forming middle classes while the white former slave owners had lost all of their power during Reconstruction and they wanted it back. They did so by starting in Vicksburg. The Democrats went in and through intimidation and political corruption, and, with help from the Red Shirts, strong armed the Republicans out of office. The Delta was the last place to fall to the Democrats.
Slaughterhouse Cases
the 5th and 14th amendments do not guarantee federal protection of individual rights of all citizens of the United States against discrimination by their own state governments; made a distinction between state citizenship and national citizenship
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Civil Rights cases
were a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The decision held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local government
Booker T. Washington
Black leader who promoted economic independence and a slow transition for blacks into free society
The Atlanta Compromise
A speech by Booker T. Washington, where he stated that blacks were willing to cooperate and submit to segregation as long as they were given the oppurtunity to grow economically.
W.E.B. Dubois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Plessy V. Ferguson
court upheld segregation it ruled separate but equal facilities did not violate the fourteenth ammendment.
Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
Grandfather clause
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
Niagra movement
Led by W.E.B. Du Bois, that focused on equal rights and education of African American youth. Rejecting the gradualist approach of Booker T. Washington, members kept alive a program of militant action and claimed for African Americans all the rights afforded to other Americans. It spawned later civil rights movements.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land in the west to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Granger Movement
1867 - Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation of a number of political parties, which eventually joined with the growing labor movement to form the Progressive Party.
Joseph Glidden
Invented barbed wire. This allowed a farmer to protect his land and his crops so that wild herds would not trample the property. They can fence in the property more cheaply, and the production of barbed wire went up dramatically in 1874.
Indian Appropriations Act
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Custer's Last Stand;an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army. decisive native american victory
Battle of Wounded Knee
US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.
A century of dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Frontier Thesis
The argument by Frederick Jackson Turner that the frontier experience helped make American socity more democratic; emphasized cheap, unsettled land and the absence of a landed aristocracy.
Crime of 1873
The Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and de-monetized silver. U.S. set the specie standard in gold and not silver, upsetting miners who referred to it as a crime
Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
(BH) 1890 , In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878. Repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.
Free Silver
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
Depression of 1893
lasted 4 years. due to over building and speculation, labor disoders, and ongoing agricultural depression. also, free silver agitation damaged American credit abroad. 8,000 businesses collapsed in 6 months
Coxey's army
unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief
Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful. A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Ocala Demands
•Platform for economic and political reform adopted by the People's party • Met in Ocala, Florida • List of complains and demands they had • It was by the Farmers' Association
Populist Party
In 1892, the Democrats nominated conservative Grover Cleveland while Republicans went with unpopular Harrison, but the splash was made by a new third party: the People's Party (aka Populist Party). The Populists, made up mainly of the Farmers' Alliance (and other groups), demanded free and unlimited coinage of silver at, a graduated income tax, and government ownership of the telephone, telegraph, and railroads—all to combat injustice. They also wanted direct elections of U.S. Senators, a one-term limit on the presidency, and the use of the initiative and referendum to allow citizens to propose and review legislation—all in the true spirit of Democracy.
Tom Watson
A leader of the Populist Party in the South.
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Ben Tillman
A senator from South Carolina, he compared Cleveland's betrayal of the Democratic party to Judas' betrayal of Jesus.
Cross of Gold
William Jennings Bryan's famous speech that criticized the monetary policy of the government for being too hard on the farmer; said in the speech that farmers were being crucified on this
Election of 1896
William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.
Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.
Legal Tender cases
1870, 1871 - A series of cases that challenged whether the paper "greenbacks" issued during the Civil War constituted legal tender, i.e., whether they were valid currency. The Supreme Court declared that greenbacks were not legal tender and their issuance had bee unconstitutional.
Wabash v. Illinois
Supreme court ruling that states could not regulate interstate commerce
E.C. Knight Company Case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress. It gave E. C. Knight a legal monopoly because it did not affect trade.
In Re Debs
Supreme Court approved use of court injunctions against strikes which gave employers a very powerful weapon to break unions; Debs later turned to the American Socialist Party in 1900
Maine explodes
On February 15, 1898 American warship Maine is destroyed by an explosion from a mine in Bay of Havana near Cuba. US blames Spain for the incident and goes to war with the country.
Commodore Dewey
Commodore or George Dewey was an admiral of the United States Navy, where he was best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He also was the only person in the history of the United States to attain the rank of 'Admiral of the Navy'
Manila Bay
Site of first major battle of Spanish-American War. Dewey defeated Spanish.
Queen Liliuokalani
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Annexation of Hawaii
U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
Rough Riders
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
(WMc) , The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Walter Reed
United States physician who proved that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes (1851-1902)
Teller Amendment
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Open Door Policy
A letter sent by John Hay to China, urging them to keep an open door in China permitting any nation to trade in the spheres of others.
Election of 1900
Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrat, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
Hay Pauncefote Treaty
permission granted by Panama for the US to dig a canal ; permitted by the British in order to make friends with US in hope of future support against Germany ; negociated under Roosevelt ; greatly facilitated trade
Hay Herran Treaty
1903, aborted agreement between the United States and Colombia providing for U.S. control of the prospective Panama Canal Panama Canal, waterway across the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic (by way of the Caribbean Sea) and Pacific oceans, built by the United States (1904-14) on territory leased from the republic of Panama . ..... Click the link for more information. and for U.S. acquisition of a canal zone. It was signed by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and Colombian foreign minister Tomás Herrán on Jan. 22, 1903. The treaty stipulated that the New Panama Canal Company, which held an option on the canal route, might sell its properties to the United States; that Colombia lease a strip of land across the Isthmus of Panama to the United States for construction of a canal; and that the United States pay Colombia $10 million and, after nine years, an annuity of $250,000.
Hay Bunau Varilla Treaty
1903 agreement between panama and us that gave us a 99 year lease to build a canal on a ten mile ide strip of land across panama isthmas
Panama Revolution
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Russo Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage on land. At sea Japan had a clear advantage, destroying the entire Russian navy. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so. Japan gained recognition of its supremacy in Korea, the transfer of Russian interests in Manchuria, and cessions of the southern half of Sakhalin Island, north of Hokkaido.
Gentleman's Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
Root Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Lansing Ishii Agreement
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
17th amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th amendment
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
19th amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Charles Evans Hughes
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
In 1911 the tragic fire killed 146 people, mostly women because the owner kept the stairway doors locked to prevent theft, following stricter building acts and factory codes, and worker insurance
Anti-Saloon League
U.S. organization working for prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors. Founded in 1893 as the Ohio Anti-Saloon League at Oberlin, Ohio, by representatives of temperance societies and evangelical Protestant churches, it came to wield great political influence.
Forest Reserve Act
1891 authorized president to set aside land to be protected as national parks ;; some 40 million acres of forest rescued
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis. Roosevelt had no authority in the matter, but summoned representatives of both sides to a White House meeting. The president proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined. Then Roosevelt angrily threatened to send in federal soldiers to take over the mines. After issuing this threat, he turned to J.P. Morgan and secured his services to act as a go-between with the mine operators.
Elkins Act
(1903) Outlawed the use of rebates by railroad officials or shippers so that prices for the common people weren't unfairly raised. Strengthened ICC
Hepburn Act
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Mann Elkins Act
(WT) 1910, gave right to prevent new rates if challenged in courts, communication now regulate directly by the Interstate Commerce Commission
Trustbuster
TR, a moderate (R) is seen as someone who topples trusts & monopolies, yet this reputation is largely overrated
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
Election of 1908
Republican William Howard Taft vs Democratic William Jennings Bryan. Tafft won becuase he was good friend and Secretary of War under Roosevelt. Tafft was Roosevelt's successor
Robert LaFollete
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
Regulatory Commisions
Formed to set safety standards and to enforce fair practices of business competition for the sake of the U.S. public.
Payne Aldrich Tariff
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
Ballinger Pinchot Controversy
Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.
Rule of Reason
under the Sherman Act, contracts or conspiracies are illegal only if they constitute an unreasonable restraint of trade or attempt to monopolize. If an agreement promotes competition, it may be legal. If it suppresses or destroys competition, it is unreasonable and illegal.
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Manchurian Railroad Scheme
The U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American products into China. It would have allowed the U.S. to corner the China market.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor.
Federal Reserve Act
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Underwood Simmons Tariff
1914, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Federal Trade Commission
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Clayton Antitrust Act
An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefitting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property.
Federal Highways Act
Passed by Wilson, it provided federal money to build roads. It helped to provide competition to the railroads' monopoly on public transportation.
Adamson Act
1916; established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with 1 1/2 time for overtime
Smith Lever Act
1917-Established the U.S.'s first Food Administration with the authority to fix food prices, license distributors, coordinate purchases, oversee exports, act against hoarding and profiteering, and encourage farmers to grow more crops.
Smith Hughes Act
Provided money for vocational and teacher and agricultural training - scholorships
Jones Act
Act that replaced the Foraker Act. It gave Puerto Ricans full citizenship, as well as a government that was similar to a state government.
Mexican Revolution
>Diaz was president for more than 30 years >Madero wins over Diaz in 1910 election (democrat) >Huerta seizes control in 1913, killing Madero >Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta as a leader
Sick Man of Europe
the ottoman empire was referred to the sick man of europe. Europe was waiting for it to die (fall) so it could colonize
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungary
Lend Lease Act
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Lusitania
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Arabic Pledge
Germany promised that it would warn non-military ships thirty minutes before it sank them.
Sussex Pledge
after French ship Sussex was sunk, Germany promised not to sink anymore merchant ships without warning; this kept the U.S. out of the war for a little while longer
Zimmerman Note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
March Revolution
As a result of this revolution the Romanov dynasty was removed from power after 300 years of autocratic rule and replaced with the provisional government led by Alexander Kerenski
Bolshevik Revolution
The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.
Espionage Act
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Sedition Act
1918 2) made it illegal to try to prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak negatively about the government/the flag/the military/the constitution (basic denial of freedom of speech!).
Selective Service
law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Fourteen points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
Red Scare
Most intense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Charles Forbes
Harding's Secretary of Veterans Affairs who sold supplies from veterans hospitals to companies in exchange for bribes. Also gave private businesses government contracts for bribes.
Harry Daugherty
Attorney General under Harding who sold illegal liquor licenses and pardons under Harding
Teapot Dome Scandal
Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, secretly allowed private interest to lease lands containing U.S. Navy oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California
Harry Sinclair
American oil industrialist; Sent to prison for using oil supplies at Teapot Dome
Secretary of Treasury Mellon
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
Volstead Act
The Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
Al Capone
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
Immigration Acts
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
Sacco and Venzetti
Nicola Sacco was a shoe-factory worker and Bartholomew Vanzetti was a fish peddler. They were both convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. They were supported by Liberals and Radicals. The case lasted 6 years and resulted in execution based on weak evidence. Mainly because Americans were zenophobic (afraid of foreigners).
Scopes trial
Substitute Teacher Scopes mentioned evolution in class, WJ Bryan prosecuted him, Clarence Darrow defended him. Happened in Dayton, TN Bryan admitted on the stand that bible needed interpretation, not taken literally. "Boosterism" city leaders publicity stunts to get attention
Model T
first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black. made in assembly line.
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
Flappers
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Marcus Garvey
Many poor urban African Americans turned to this powerful leader in the 1920s. He founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association), urged black economic cooperation and helped African Americans start businesses. He supported "back-to-Africa" movement.
Washington Disarmament Conference
An international conference on the limitation of naval fleet construction begins in Washington. Under the leadership of the American Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes the representatives of the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan pledge not to exceed the designated sizes of their respective naval fleets
Five Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build.
Four Powers Treaty
between Britain, Japan, France and the United States- replaced the 20-year old Anglo-Japanese Treaty and preserved the status quo (territory) in the Pacific
Nine Powers Treaty
Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
Kellog Briand Pact
International agreement not to use war as an instrument of national policy.
Fordney McCumber Tariff
raiised taxes on U.S import to 60% especially in the chemical and metals industries
Hawley Smoot Tariff
reduced flow of goods into united states and prevented other countries from earning american currency to buy american goods
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.
Hoover Stimson Doctrine
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
Good Neighbor Policy
1932-FDR didnt think that USA had right to intervene in Latin America's affairs. Pulled out troops from Dom Repub,Haiti, worked out agreement w/Panama., FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Twentieth Amendment
shortened the time between the election and inauguration day, also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
21st amendment
1933; prohibition repealed officially
Emergency Banking Relief Act
Recovery: (EBRA) March 9, 1933; closed insolvent banks, reorganized strong banks, aided banks overall; 5000 banks inspected and reopened; examiners inspected banks; gave president power to regulate transactions in credit, currency, gold, silver, and foreign exchange
Glass Steagall Act
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation.; were both reactions of the U.S. government to cope with the economic problems which followed the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
Gold Clause Act
It voided any clause in past or future contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enforce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing circulation of gold coin.
National Industry Recovery Act
Sought to help business, raise prices, control production, and put people back to work. This act established the National Recovery Administration (NRA), with the power to set fair competition codes in all industries
National Industry Recovery Administration
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936
Civilian Conservation Corps
Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Relief: 1932; (FERA) response to Federal Emergency Relief Act; headed by Harry Hopkins; fought adult unemployment, gave money away, short term solution to unemployment; gave state/localities $3.1 billion; 20,000,000 got work; lasted from May 1933 to December 1935
Civil Works Administration
November 9, 1933- Harry L. Hopkins was put in charge of the organization. The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges. In just one year, the CWA cost the government over $1 Billion and was cancelled. So much was spent on this administration because it hired 4 million people and was mostly concerned with paying high wages.
Public Works Administration
Relief: June 1933; created by NIRA; spent $3.3 billion on public projects; provided the unemployed with work in public works; Recovery: contributed to a revival of the American industry; increased purchasing power and and improed public welfare; from July 1933 to March 1939 it took on 34,000 different public works projects; included airports, electricity-generating dams, major warships for navies, and bridges; spent over $6 billion dollars total
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Federal Housing Authorities
Established by FDR during the depression in order to provide low-cost housing coupled with sanitary condition for the poor
Securities and Exchange Commission
Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
National Labor Relations Board
An agency of the federal government that has oversight responsibility for enforcing laws pertaining to union/management relations
Fair Labor Standards Act
June 25, 1938- United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in and producing goods for interstate commerce. The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term defined in the statute. The FLSA is administered by the Wage & Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.
Revenue Act
1935; raised taxes on the wealthy and corporations
Second New Deal
Jan 1935-Sept1935- Reorganized fed program for jobless relief. Assistance to rural poor,Supp for org labor, social welfare benefits for elder, stricker business reg, heavier taxes on wealthy.
Social Security Act
August 14, 1935- The Social Security Act was drafted by President Roosevelt's committee on economic security, under Edwin Witte. The Act provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to retirees were financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.
Court packing plan
1) R wanted to increase the size of the Supreme Court from 2) Sent bill to congress in '37: if a justice served for 10 years and didn't retire at 70, then the president could appoint another judge; passing of the bill would have allowed Roosevelt to appoint 6 new judged immediately => R's first serious mistake => Supreme court backing down on some of R's legislation
Robinson Patman Act
1937 - Amended federal anti-trust laws so as to outlaw "price discrimination," whereby companies create a monopolistic network of related suppliers and vendors who give each other more favorable prices than they do others.
Hatch Act
Federal statute barring federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds.
Montevideo Conference
A treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States that set out the definition, rights and duties of statehood. At this conference, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull declared the so-called Good Neighbor Policy, which opposed U.S. armed intervention in inter-American affairs. This was a FDR's diplomatic attempt to reverse the perception of "Yankee imperialism," brought about by policies instituted (largely) by his uncle, President Theodore Roosevelt. The convention was signed by 19 states, 3 with reservations
Lima Conference
1938 - Last of the Pan-American conferences held before the outbreak of World War II. Issued the Declaration of Lima asserting the unity of the Latin American nations and their determination to resist al forms of foreign agression.
Nye Committee
In 1934 Senator Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota held hearings to investigate the country's involvement on WW1; this committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war
Merchants of Death
Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor nations.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
Panay Incident
The Panay incident was when Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.
Quarantine Speech
_, In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist aggression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine aggressor nations, esp. japan.
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Nonagression pact
Germany (Hitler) and Russia (Stalin) agree not to declare war on each other.
Cash and carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
Lend Lease
A program under which the United States supplied U.K, USSR, China, France, and other allied nations with vast amounts of war meterial between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, Military bases in New Foundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. It began in March 1941, nine months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It was abruptly stopped by the Americans immediately after V-J day.
Atlantic Charter
FDR and Chuchill meeting that stated that condemned aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
War Production Board
Created in 1942, this organization oversaw the production of planes, tanks, artillery pieces, and munitions needed for entering WWII
War Labor Board
(WLB) settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
General Douglas MacArthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
Casablanca conference
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Cairo Conference
A war time conference held at Cairo, Egypt that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek. It addressed the Allied position against Japan during WWII and made decisions about postwar Asia.
Tehran Conference
December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace
Island hopping
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference
Brought forward many differences over east Europe; postwar conference in July of 1945; Stalin would not allow any type of freely elected government in east European countries; Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Harry Truman, who demanded free elections.
Charles de Gaulle
French Colonel, later General, who escaped France with troops and money to continue the fight with the Nazis.
Iron Curtain speech
Given by the former Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill, in Missouri, in which he talks about the dangers of communism engulfing Europe.
Nuremburg trials
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
Containment
George F. Kennan, Policy that required the United States to try and keep communism from spreading around the world
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
SEATO
Alliance formed to oppose Communism in Southeast Asia
CENTO
(the Central Treaty Org.)Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, G.B., and U.S. intended to prevent Soviet Union from expanding at the expense of its southern neighbors.
ANZUS
Pact Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the US, Signed in 1951, providing for their mutual defense against armed attack in the Pacific region.
Truman MacArthur Controversy
Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for MacArthur's public criticism of the U.S. government's handling of the war. Intended to confirm the American tradition of civilian control over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.
Bricker Amendment
Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive branch would become law if and only if they were approved by Congress and didn't conflict with state laws. Isolationist measure, didn't pass.
Suez Crisis
when President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser responded by nationalizing the Suez canal, which was previously owned by British and French stockholders. This hurt Europe by crippling their oil supply, most of which came from the Persian Gulf. The French and British retaliated by striking Egypt, confident that the United States would supply them with the oil they needed while they foughtwith the Middle East. President Eisenhower refused to do so, forcing the allies to withdraw their troops. As a result, U.N. troops acted for the first time to maintain peace and order in the world. Soviets tried to interfere. Eisenhown put the Strategic Air Command on alert.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Aid countries against communism and use force against apparent or imminent danger against U.S.
Castro's Revolution
1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy's Marshall Plan for Latin America to establish democratic governments, land reform, economic and social planning; US pledges $20 billion contribution; money wasn't used the way it was intended
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when President Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, nuclear war was averted, and the crisisended.
ICBM
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
Revenue Act of 1942
raised corporation taxes and required nearly all Americans to pay income taxes.
G.I. Bill of Rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business
Employment Act of 1946
Enacted by Truman, it committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power
Dixiecrats
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Strom Thurmond
He was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator. He also ran for the presidency of the United States in 1948 under the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party banner.
Fair Deal
A deal that created projects to create jobs, build public housing, and end racial discrimination. South Democrats and Republicans worked together to stop his projects.
Joseph McCarthy
a Republican United States senator from Wisconsin, was one of the most controversial figures in American politics. He gained worldwide attention in the early 1950's by charging that Communists had infiltrated the government. McCarthy conducted several public investigations of Communist influence on U.S. foreign policy. Some people praised him as a patriot, but others condemned him for publicly accusing people of disloyalty without sufficient evidence. He did not succeed in identifying any Communists employed by the government. His widely scattered charges gave rise to a new word, McCarthyism.
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
22nd amendment
Limited any President after Harry Truman to 2 terms; Ratified by the required 3/4 of the states by Feb. 1951
McCarran Walter Immigration Act
1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
Interstate Highways Act
1944 - Began federal funding for an interstate highway system.
Landrum Griffin Act
1959 - Specially tailored to make labor officials responsible for the union's financial affairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing.
AFL-CIO merger
In 1955 at a New York City Convention, these two once-rival organizations decided to put aside their differences and unite. Had a total membership of over 15 million.
National Defense Education Act
Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an opportunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
(FEPC) aimed at insuring morale and maximum use of labor force by preventing employer discrimination against workers because of race or religion. The efforts of this committee laid the foundation for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's.
Detroit race riots
June 25, 1943 - Outright racial war broke out between Blacks and Whites and the government did not send help.
Desegregation of Armed Forces
1948 In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. (p. 836)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
In a 9-0 vote, the separate but equal doctrine was abandoned when it was decided that the education system was not equal.
Thurgood Marshall
first black justice in S.C.
Little Rock, Arkansas crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Civil Rights Act 1957
Was intended to protect the right of AA's to vote. The act brought the power of the federal government into the civil rights debate. The act created a civil rights division within the Department of Justice and gave it the authority to seek court injunctions against anyone interfering with the right to vote. Also created the US commission on Civil Rights to investigate allegations of denial of voting rights.
Civil Rights Act 1960
It gave the Federal Courts the power to register Black voters and provided for voting referees who served wherever there was racial discrimination in voting, making sure Whites did not try to stop Blacks from voting.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Urban League
Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Adam Clayton Powell
Flamboyant Congressman from Harlem and chairman of the House and Labor Committee, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1968, but removed from office for alleged misuse of funds.
Malcolm X
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Black Panthers
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
Angela Davis
Black Communist college professor affiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused of having been involved in a murderous jail-break attempt by that organization.
24th amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Robert Weaver
first African American to serve in a cabinet; served as secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development under Johnson
Civil Rights Act 1964
Was the most comprehensive civil rights law Congress had ever enacted. It gave the federal government broad power to prevent racial discrimination in a number of areas. The law made segregation illegal in most places of public accommodation and it gave citizens of all races and nationalities equal access to such facilities as restaurants, parks, libraries, and theaters. The law gave the attorney general more power to bring lawsuits to force school desegregation and it required private employers to end discrimination in the workplace. It also established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as a permanent agency in the federal government. This commission monitors the ban on job discrimination by race, religion, gender, and national origin.
Voting Rights Act 1965
stop voting discrimination in the south - Suspended literacy tests, empowered federal officials to register voters, prohibited states from changing voting procedures without federal permission.
Civil Rights Act 1968
prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Dien Bien Phu
In 1954, Vietminh rebels besieged a French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, deep in the interior of northern Vietnam. In May, after the United States refused to intervene, Dien Bien Phu fell to the communists.
Geneva Conference 1954
a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam. It produced a set of treaties known as the Geneva Accords
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Kent State
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four
Jackson State
Black Mississippi College, anti war demonstrators seize womens dorm, unprovoked state police open fire, kill 2 (innocent & unarmed, wound 12)
Daniel Ellsberg
a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
Pentagon Papers
7,000-page top-secret United States government report about the history of the Government's internal planning and policy concerning the Vietnam War. The documents became famous when State Department officer Daniel Ellsberg gave them to the The New York Times to publish in early 1971. Loss of government credibility.
Senator Fullbright
Anti-Vietnam War Senator from Arkansas, he was head of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In 1966 and 1967, he held a series of hearings to air anti-war sentiments.
Paris Accord 1973
January 7, 1973 - U.S. signed a peace treaty with North Vietnam and began withdrawing troops. On April 25, 1975, South Vietnam was taken over by North Vietnam, in violation of the treaty.
Miranda v. Arizona
1964 - Miranda held that a person arrested for a crime must be advised of his right to remain silent and to have an attorney before being questioned by the police
Escobedo v. Illnois
Escobedo held that an accused can reassert these rights at any time, even if he had previously agreed to talk to the police.
Baker v. Carr
1962 The Supreme Court declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must be following at both state and national levels. The decision required that districts be redrawn so the each representative represented the same number of people.
Gideon v. Wainwright
The Supreme Court held that all defendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel, so the state must appoint a free attorney to represent defendants who are too poor to afford one.
Silent Spring
An American marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the food chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies.
New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
Trade Expansion Act
October, 1962 - The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariffs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariffs by as much as 50%, and, in some cases, he could eliminate them.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
A treaty signed by the Soviet Union and the United States, and roughly 100 other countries, that ended the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
United Nations in the Congo
1960 A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in troops to try to prevent civil war.
Salvador Allende
Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown by the military in 1973. He died during the military attack. (p. 856)
Panama Canal Treaties
Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Flower Children
Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Office of Economic Opportunity
oversaw many programs dealing w/ improving life in inner cities (ex: Job Corps: education and job training program for at-risk youth), Set guidelines for equal hiring and education practices (started "quotas")
War on Poverty
Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.
Medicare
a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
Democratic party riot, Chicago
August, 1968 - With national media coverage, thousands of anti-war protestors, Blacks and Democratic supporters were clubbed by Major Daley's police.
The Feminine Mystique
written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Equal Rights Amendment
Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
Revenue Sharing
Giving money back to the state and local government with no strings attached
Watergate
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Plumbers
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
SALT I Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two major departments and 200 missiles.
Detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
War Powers Act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power
Shuttle Diplomacy
In the 1970s, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger began an intensive campaign in which he moved back and forth from Israel to Egypt to Syria to try to reach a peace settlement
25th amendment
clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
26th amendment
lowered the voting age to 18
Chicanos
Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the majority of migrant farm labor in the U.S.
American Indian Movement
an Indian activist organization in the United States. AIM burst onto the international scene with its seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972 and the 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating Indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States.
Arab oil embargo
After the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U.S. and caused a crisis
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
Balance of Trade
1973 - U.S. tried to balance its trade to make American goods cost less for foreigners, in order to encourage them to buy more American products. Resulted in a devalued dollar.
Alaska pipeline
Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil fields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U.S.
Stagflation
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Camp David Accords
agreement calling for Israel to return all land in the Sinai in exchange for Egyptian recognition of Israel's sovereignty. Egyptian Sadat agreed and was labeled a traitor
Palestinian Liberation Front
Led by Arafat, it was organized to liberate Palestine from Israelis in the late '70's and early '80's. Its guerrilla warfare and terrorist tactics were not effective.
Afghanistan, 1979
The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring Afghanistan to support its Communist government against guerrilla attacks by fundamentalist Muslims.
Olympics 1980
The U.S. withdrew from the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew for this and other reasons.
Reaganomics
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
Supply side economics
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Sandra Day O'Connor
(b. 1930) Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.
Mapp v. Ohio
1961, a landmark case in the area of U.S. criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Engel v. Vitale
1962, banned formal prayer in schools, government would not make any religion the 'official' religion.
Wesberry v. Sanders
1964, One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts.
Reynolds v. Sims
1964, said that state legislative districts not based on the one man on vote formula violated 14th ammenedment
Bakke v. Board of Regents, University of California at Davis
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
Roe v. Wade
'73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt