205.01.02.03

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Pre-Production
Meet with the client to create a project plan:
Determine the purpose of the project.

Define a target audience.

Set overall goals of the audio project.

Agree on deadlines for phases of the project.

Create a budget for the project
Script Writing
The overall goals of the audio project.
The target audience of the project.
The accepted vernacular of the target audience.
The readers (performers) of the script.
Pre-Production
Choose a microphone.
Choosing the appropriate microphone depends on:
The specific type of recording needed.
The location.
The performer.
Pre-Production
Choose the necessary cables.
Considerations include:
The type of microphone selected.
The recording device being used.
Goal to record the original audio as effectively as possible.
Production
In audio production, the production phase consists only of recording audio with a recording device.
No editing!
Post-Production
Editing previously recorded audio.
Audio sections can be deleted.
Audio clips are mixed or combined.
The pitch, speed and tempo of the audio can be modified.
Post-Production
Preview the final version.
Listen to the audio levels and make sure they are consistent and do not over modulate.
Make sure the finalized audio project matches the script and accomplishes the overall goals.
Post Production
Optimize based on specific client needs:
File Format Requirements
File Size Requirements
File Name Requirements
Audio files use a software called codec that compresses the original file and then decompress it to play it, the client must have the same one to be able to utilize the file.
Microphones
Condenser
Dynamic
Lavaliere
Shotgun
Condenser Microphone
Requires an outside power source (phantom power).
Results in a high quality signal production.
Commonly used to capture a person's voice or a musical instrument in a studio.
Dynamic Microphone
Does not require an outside power source.
Audio signal strengthened by an audio board or other amplifier.
Commonly used to capture audio during live production.
Durable microphone.
Lavaliere Microphone
Typically attached to the necktie or shirt of the user.
Used by performers on television or stage because their small size makes it easy to hide.
Produce a relatively good sound quality.
Shotgun Microphone
Usually long and skinny in appearance.
Commonly found on high-end video cameras for capturing sound from the recording.
Also referred to as a "boom" microphone.
Audio Cables
Certain cable types are needed to connect all of the equipment correctly.
RCA Cables
XLR Cables
Mini Cables
¼" (Phono) Cables
RCA Cables
Very common audio (and video) cable used in professional and consumer settings alike.
Color coded system makes it easy to distinguish left and right channels of audio.
XLR Cables
The best audio quality, making it common in the professional industry.
Has a push-button locking system that keeps it from easily being unplugged.
Very commonly used for microphones
Mini Cables
Found on virtually every consumer audio device.
Relatively poor audio quality.
Number of rings around the plug indicate if cable is mono (one ring) or stereo (two rings).
¼" (Phonos) Cables
Widely used to connect speakers, amplifiers, and guitars.
Similar to mini plug with the rings indicating the number of channels.
Better audio quality when compared to the mini.
Microphone Pickup Patterns
Depending on the type of recording that is desired and the location of the performers, different microphone pickup patterns record the sound in varying methods.
Omnidirectional Pickup Pattern
Captures sound from all directions.
Useful for capturing sound from all parts of a room.
Commonly found on consumer video cameras.
Cardioid Pickup Pattern
Heart-shaped.
Audio sources in the front of the microphone and very close to the sides are captured.
Very little sound is picked up from behind the microphone.
Bi-Directional Pickup Pattern
Captures sound from in front of the microphone and behind it.
Very little sound is picked up from the sides.
Good microphone to use when recording a two-person conversation.
Shotgun Pickup Pattern
Captures sound from a pointed direction in a narrow range.
Useful for recording sound from long distances away (during video shoots, in stadiums, recording wildlife, etc.).
Very little sound is picked up from the sides or behind the microphone.
Setup Microphone & Cables
Setup the microphone and use the appropriate cables to connect to a recording device
Monitor the levels of the audio while the recording is taking place.
Watch the V.U. meter to make sure the audio is at the appropriate level throughout the entire recording.
Adjust the volume of the recording to keep the signal from clipping (producing a signal that is too loud for the amplifier to handle).
Scrubbing
Clicking and dragging the playhead of an audio project through the timeline to get to a particular section.
Ducking
An editing feature that lowers the volume of a particular track when another audio source is present.
Commonly used for voiceovers with background music.
Equalization
The process of adjusting the different levels (bass, treble, mid-tones, etc.) in an audio recording in order to produce the best sound.
Audio Gain
Adding gain to audio will increase the level of the output signal using power from an amplifier; increases the voltage output of the signal.
Normalization
The process of making sure all of the audio levels in a project are at a consistent level and sound good together.
Live Audio Techniques
When working with live audio a mixing console is typically used.
Audio Input
Each microphone or audio input is connected to the mixer to be adjusted in a channel.
Channel Process
No matter how many channels an audio mixing board has, each channel works the same way.
The sound enters through the audio gain area.
The sound is edited with the EQ and the Aux section.
The volume control for the channel before it is mixed is the fader.
Audio Adjustments
The gain controls how much audio is coming in, and the fader controls how much sound is coming out.
The gain should be set, then EQ and Aux adjusted for a proper sound.
To control the volume of that channel after Gain, EQ and Aux are set, only the fader should be used. Adjusting the gain will cause the EQ and Aux to be re-calibrated.
Master Area
Once each channel is set, they all are fed into a master area.
VU Meter
It is important to watch the VU meter in the master section of the mixing console.
If the volume goes into the red area often, or remains in the red area, there is the possibility of audio distortion.
Adobe Audition
The work area in Adobe Audition can be configured to simulate an analog mixer.
Instead of feeding live microphones in for each channel, Audition displays each recorded element on a channel.
Linear Configuration
The file can also be set up in a linear configuration.
Files Bin
Audio files to work with are stored in the "Files" Bin.
Timeline Editor
Audio can be placed on the timeline editor to be trimmed, looped, faded in and out.
Exporting Audio
Audio can be exported in a variety of formats.