Terms in this set (35)
-China was not restored to its earlier glory until the emergence of this dynasty
-foreign trade flourished
-a scholarly general named Zhao Kuangyin reunited much of China and founded this dynasty
-faced the constant threat of invaders in the north
time of great achievement
-Chinese economy expanded because of improved farming methods and open border policy. (Grand Canal)
gentry and peasantry
China's two main social classes
Most scholar-officials at court came this wealthy landowning class.
When not in government service, this class often served in the provinces as allies of the emperor's officials.
valued learning more than physical labor
Status of Women
had higher status in Tang and early Song times than they did later
families valued boys more than girls
She could not keep her dowry, the payment that a woman brings to a marriage, and could never remarry.
Tiny feet and a stilted walk became a symbol of nobility and beauty
a multi-storied temple with eaves that curve up at the corners.
a brilliant Mongol chieftain united warring tribes. "Universal Ruler."
Under his leadership, Mongol forces conquered a vast empire that stretched from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe.
imposed strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty.
Genghis Khan's grandson
ruled all of China as well as Korea and Tibet.
reserved the highest government jobs for Mongols or for other non-Chinese officials whom he employed
uneasy mix of Chinese and foreign customs developed.
sought to reassert Chinese greatness after years of foreign rule.
restored the civil service system,
Confucian learning again became the road to success.
Economy and culture flourish
Chinese fleets into waters to show glory
most extraordinary were the his voyages
Chinese admiral and diplomat
Goal: promote trade and collect tribute
Korea's most celebrated ruler
Decided to replace the complex Chinese system of writing.
had experts develop hangul
the Korean phonetic alphabet that uses symbols to represent the sounds of spoken Korean.
Its use led to an extremely high literacy rate
The worship of the forces of nature
meaning "the way of kami."
phonetic symbols representing syllables.
The Japanese asserted their identity by revising the Chinese system of writing
Peninsula... a bit isolated
One land border
Influenced by china
Korea influenced Japan
most koreans live along the coastal plains!
Influenced by Chinese
Civil Service Exams
Peasants could qualify
Korea became a tributary state!!
Period of religious fervor - Buddhism!
Tripitaka Koreana - Buddhist scriptures carved onto 80,000 woodblocks
- Stored at Haeinsa Temple
First metal-based movable type
- Buddhist Doc.!!!!!!
- Guide for students of Buddhism
- World's oldest existing movable metal print book
Hangul - korean alphabet
Gov. officials/aristocrats opposed it
Lower class embraced it and became literate
- technological advancements
Revised Korean calendar
New significant designs
"Way of the warrior"
Obedience, honor, loyalty, respect, compassion, bravery
Prepared for hardship
Go hungry, barefoot in the snow
Men trained to fight (Judo, karate)
Death before dishonor
Seppuku ("Hari kiri")
Emphasizes extreme mental and physical self-discipline
"Zen" = "Meditation"
Ponder problems that seem sensical
Not to get a logical answer, but to induce meditation
Leads to greater self-understanding
Simplicity and restraint!
"Those who serve"
were the fighting aristocracy of a war-torn land
heavily armed and trained in skills of fighting
developed their own code of values (bushido)
were very attracted to Zen
supported zen monasteries
took great pride in creating art
supreme military leader
holds most power
only women to rule china in her own name
her rule helped guide china through one of its most brilliant periods
brilliant general, government reformer, historian, master of the calligraphy brush.
china's most admired emperor.
nomadic people who grazed their horses and sheep on the steppes of central asia.
spent much of their time warring.
voyage to China
spent 17 years in Kublai's service
tang emperor's instituted a system in which they broke up large agricultural holdings and redistributed the land to peasants.
strengthened central gov
increased gov revenues
japan is located on these chain of islands
adopted Confucian ideas
When Korea acknowledged Chinese overlordship...
In the 1590s, Korea was invaded by
writing the world's first full length novel.
Japan's feudal society was dominated by
They were determined to end feudal warfare.
peace and simplicity
The Japanese tea ceremony that reflects the Zen values of