An individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
A theory that attempts to describe and explain individual similarities and differences.
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development.
A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind.
In Freud's theory, a term used to describe thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness.
Latin for "the it"; in Freud's theory, the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by the pleasure principle.
In Freud's theory, the self-preservation or life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species.
In Freud's theory, the psychological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive.
In Freud's theory, the death instinct, reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions.
In Freud's theory, the motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of the id.
Latin for I; in Freud's theory, the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world.
In Freud's theory, the awareness of environmental demands and the capacity to accommodate them by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist.
In Freud's theory, the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules.
Ego Defense Mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety.
In psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness; the most fundamental ego defense mechanism.
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous.
In psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that involves redirecting sexual urges towards productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities; a form of displacement.
Justifying one's actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than consciously acknowledging one's true motives or desires.
Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.
A form of unconscious repentance that involves neutralizing or atoning for an unacceptable action or thought with a second action or thought.
In Freud's theory, age-related developmental periods in which the child's sexual urges are expressed through different areas of the body and the activities associated with those areas. (Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital).
In Freud's theory, a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings towards the same-sex parent.
In psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that involves reducing anxiety by modeling the behavior and characteristics of another person.
The psychosexual stage in which the mouth is the primary focus of pleasurable and gratifying sensations, which the infant achieves via feeding and exploring objects with his mouth.
The psychosexual stage in which the anus is the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which the young child derives in developing control over elimination via toilet training.
The psychosexual stage in which the genitals are the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which the child derives through sexual curiosity, masturbation, and sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent.
The psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses become repressed and dormant as the child develops same-sex friendships with peers and focuses on school, sports, and other activities.
The psychosexual stage in which as the adolescent reaches physical sexual maturity, the genitals become the primary focus of pleasurable sensations, which the person seeks to satisfy in heterosexual relationships.
The psychologist born in Switzerland who was a pioneer in archetypes and the collective unconscious.
Followers of Freud that disagreed with him only on several key beliefs, resulting in a "new" age of Freudian theory.
In Jung's theory, the hypothesized part of the unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains universally shared ancestral experiences and ideas.
In Jung's theory, the inherited mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the collective unconscious.
A psychoanalyst that developed the theories of basic anxiety and "womb envy", and stressed the importance of social relationships.
A Vienna born psychologist who developed the ideas of inferiority and striving for superiority.
Striving for Superiority
The desire to improve oneself, master challenges, and move toward self-perfection and self-realization.
A general sense of superiority, greatness, and exaggerating one's accomplishments and importance in an effort to cover up weaknesses and deny the reality of one's limitations.
The theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development.
The pioneer and leader in humanistic psychology who developed the theory of actualizing tendency.
In Roger's theory, the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism.
Conditional Positive Regard
In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others; conditional love or acceptance.
Unconditional Positive Regard
In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance.
Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura's theory of personality, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
A model proposed by psychologist Albert Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
The beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt.
A theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences.
Personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior.
The most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number.
A pioneer trait theorist who created a list of 171 characteristics, then created the 16PF.
A British psychologist who created a theory of 3 dimensions of personality, introversion-extraversion, neuroticism-emotional stability, and psychoticism.
Five-Factor Model of Personality
A trait theory of personality that identifies five basic source traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) as the fundamental building blocks of personality.
An interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior.
A test that assesses a person's abilities, aptitudes, interests, or personality, based on a systematically obtained sample of behavior.
A type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image; used to assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective test using inkblots, developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921.
A pseudoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and occupational attributes based on a person's distinctive handwriting, doodles, and drawing style.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scenes.
A type of psychological test in which a person's responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders; used to assess both normal and disturbed populations.
California Personality Inventory (CPI)
A self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal populations.
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
A self-report inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on 16 trait dimensions.