stage three of glycolysis
point of fermentation reaction
fermentation is internally balanced?
the use of NADH requires the regeneration of NAD+
in the absence of gloucose compounds can make ATP via
substrate level phosphorylation
"energy-rich compounds involved"
high energy intermediates
most phototrophs are
using CO2 as sole carbon source requires
reducing power (high energy electrons have to be available to donate) and energy
"light reactions" require
reducing power and energy
CO2 fixing, regenerate supply
anoxygenic photosynthesis involves
anoxygenic photosynthesis requires
reducing power and energy
what are the donors that provide reducing power?
the photosystems; p680 is a good donor by splitting water (water supplies the reducing power)
electrons donated, drops down to ground state. water is split to replenish electrons (water is the reducing power)
The Z scheme involves
green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
The Z scheme:
electrons can be passed down to p700,
becomes a better donor
p700 being a better donor makes ____ reducing power
the different chloroplasts have
different R groups, absorb at different maximum wavelengths
where does ATP synthesis occur ?
ATPs chills where??
oxygen is the end product, generates reducing power
anoxic photosynthesis reducing power generate by
anoxygenic photosynthesis occurs in
purple bacteria, green sulfur/nonsulfur bacteria, gram positive, and acidobacteria
oxygenic electron flow
the Z scheme
1st step in Z scheme
splitting of water into oxygen and electrons
2nd step in Z scheme
p680 acts as a reducer and is then returned to its ground state potential (after it is reduced by an electron from water)
donates electron to photosystem I
p700 accepts electron, eventually leads to the reduction of NAD+
ulitmately NAD+ IS
reduced to NADH
green plants, algae, cyanobacteria
carries out cyclic photophosphorylation using only photosystem 1
Reducing power for Co2 anoxygenic
sources other than water
reducing power for CO2 oxygenic
purple bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, heliobacteria
purple and green bacteria
preceded cyanobacteria (oxygenic; anoxygenic photosynthesis first form of photosynthesis on earth
REVERSE ELECTRON FLOW to produce NADH
can be used for reducing potential; better than NADH
ferredoxin can be used by
green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria
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