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64 terms

Oceans and Tides

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Pacific Ocean
largest ocean in the world
Salinity
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
How water movement affects salinity
slower moving areas have higher salinity
Surface Zone
the warm top layer of the ocean water, from surface to 300 m under
Thermocline
the second layer from 300- 700m temperature decreases as you go down faster here
Deep Zone
bottom layer, temperature from 1-3 degrees celsius.
Water Cycle
the continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean.
Sonar
sound navigation and ranging, used to determine depths
Continental Shelf
gently sloping section of the continental margin between shoreline and slope
Continental Slope
steeply inclined section of the margin between the rise and shelf
Continental Rise
gently sloping section of margin between slope and abyssal plane
Abyssal Plain
large, flat, almost level area of the deep ocean basin
Mid Ocean Ridge
a long undersea mountain chain that forms along the floor of major oceans
Rift Valley
long, narrow valley that forms as tectonic plate separate
Ocean Trench
steep long depression in deep sea floor that runs parallel to a chain of volcanic islands or continental margin
Piloted Vessels
Alvin and deep flight are driven by people and search for things and explore the ocean
Robotic Vessels
Jason II and Medea, used because pilot are expensive and dangerous, to explore ocean floor
Plankton
microscopic creatures
Nekton
organisms that swim actively in the open ocean
Benthos
organisms that live on or in the ocean floor
Benthic Environment
the region near the ocean floor and all the organisms that live on or in it.
Intertidal Zone
shallowest benthic environment. It changes as the tide comes and goes, becoming covered and uncovered by water
Sublittoral Zone
begins where intertidal ends. Here there is always water, things remain constant
Bathyal Zone
from 200m to 4,000m. Animals are octopuses and sea stars
Abyssal Zone
no plant and few animals here, largest zone of ocean. Tube worms live here
Hadal Zone
deepest zone of the ocean floor, a type of sponge, worm, and clam lives here
Pelagic Environment
Zone near the oceans surface and in the middle
Neritic Zone
covers the continental shelf has largest concentration of marine animals, fish and dolphins
Oceanic Zone
Covers entire sea floor besides the continental shelf, giant squids and whales live here
Living Ocean Resources
fish, kelp, seaweed
Fish Farms
used to minimize the number of fish taken from the ocean
Nonliving Ocean Resources
Oil and Natural gas
Desalination
the process of removing salt from ocean water
Non-Point Source Pollution
pollution that comes from many sources rather than just a single site ex.oil and gas leaks, pesticides flowing
Point Source Pollution
pollution that comes from a specific site ex. trash dumping, sludge dumping
Ocean Currents
stream-like movements of water in the ocean
Surface Currents
movements of water near the surface of the ocean, caused by global winds, Coriolis effect, and continental deflections
Coriolis Effect
the apparent curving of moving objects from a straight path due to the earths rotation, causes surface currents in the North to go clockwise and south, counterclockwise
Deep Current
stream-like movements of ocean water located far below the surface, they are caused by increased density, caused by decreased temperature and increased salinity
Warm-Water Currents
cause the climates of coastal areas that would otherwise be cooler, to get warmer
Cold-Water Currents
cause the climates of coastal areas that would otherwise be warmer, to be cooler
Upwelling
a process in which cold, nutrient rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm water this is important to organisms because the nutrients support the growth of plankton
El Niño
the periodic change in the location of warm and cool surface waters in the Pacific Ocean
La Niña
periodic change in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface water temperature becomes unusually cool, follows el Niño
Damages of El Niño
flash floods and mudslides, drought, upwelling not occurring that is killing many organisms
Why we study el Niño
because of its effects on organisms and land
Crest
highest point of the waves
Trough
lowest point of the wave
Wavelength
distance between two adjacent crests or troughs
Wave Height
distance between the crest and the trough
Wave Period
the time between the passage of of two wave crests or troughs at a fixed point
Get Higher
what happens when waves approach the shore
Deep Water Waves
waves that move in water deeper than one half their wavelength.
Shallow Water Waves
when waves reach water shallower than half their wavelength
Breaker Zone
the area where the waves first begin to tumble
Whitecaps
the bubbles in the crest of a breaking wave
Swell
one of a group of long ocean waves that have steadily traveled a great distance from their point of generation
Tsunami
a giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or landslide
Tides
daily changes in the level of ocean water
High Tides
When part of the ocean is directly facing the moon, the water bulges on that side and the opposite, theses bulges are
Timing Tides
24 hours and 50 minutes from high tide to high tide
Tidal Range
the difference in levels of ocean water at high and low tide.
Spring Tide
tide of increased range that occurs at the full and new moons, when this occurs the sun, moon, and earth are directly lined up.
Neap Tide
a tide of minimum range that occurs during the first and third quarters of the moon, the moon, earth, and sun form a 90 degree angle at this point