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Anatomy & Physiology

The thick layer of the heart wall that contains contractile cardiac muscle tissue is the:


The layer of the heart wall synonymous with the visceral layer of the serous pericardium is:


Which area of the heart receives blood from the systemic veins:

right atrium

The right AV valve is known as the:

tricuspid valve

Pulmonary veins:

transport oxygenated blood to the heart

What structure divides the left from the right ventricle:

interventricular septum

When the ventricles contract, the bicuspid (mitral) valve prevents blood from flowing from the:

left ventricle to the left atrium

The tricuspid valve is located between the:

right atrium and right ventricle

The superior vena cava empties:

deoxygenated blood into the right atrium

The aortic semilunar valve is composed of:

three cusps and opens when the left ventricle contracts

The sinoatrial node is located in the:

right atrium

A heart rate of over 100 beats per minute is called:


The mitral valve is normally closed:

when the ventricle is in systole

A person with a heart rate of 75 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 60 mL per beat has a cardiac output of:

4500 mL/minute

The volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle with each beat of the heart is called the:

stroke volume

The path of blood flow within the systemic vascular system is:

arteries, arterioles, capillary beds, venules, veins

An increase in parasympathetic activity (primarily by the vagus nerves) causes:

a decrease in both heart rate and cardiac output


often have valves to prevent the backflow of blood

The carotid artery is located in the:


Blood travels to the stomach by way of the branch of the celiac trunk called the:

left gastric atery

The right and left renal veins empty blood from the:

inferior vena cava

The external iliac vein receives blood from all of the following EXCEPT:

vertebral vein

The brachial vein:

drains blood from the radial and ulnar veins, then empties that blood into the axillary vein

The umbilical vein carries:

oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the fetus

The friction blood encounters as it flows through the vessels is called:

peripheral resistance

Generalized vasoconstriction occurs as a result of:

an increase in sympathetic nervous system firing

Substances tend to leave the bloodstream at the arterial end of the capillary because:

blood pressure is higher at the arterial end of the capillary

Varicose veins are caused by:

incompetent venous valves

T/F Cardiac muscle is enclosed by a double sac of serous membrane known as the peritoneum.


T/F The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.


T/F The chordae tendineae anchor the semilunar valves to the walls of the ventricles.


T/F The tricuspid valve is located on the right side of the heart between the right atrium and right ventricle.


T/F The semilunar valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria when the ventricles are contracting.


T/F Arteries always carry blood away from the heart.


T/F The coronary sinus on the backside of the heart drains deoxygenated blood from the wall of the heart into the left atrium.


T/F The coronary sulcus is also known as the atrioventricular groove.


T/F The part of the intrinsic conduction system of the heart that directly supplies the walls of the ventricles is the Purkinje fibers.


T/F The pacemaker of the heart under normal circumstances is called the sinoatrial (SA) node.


T/F Systole means contraction of the ventricles.


T/F During ventricular diastole, the bicuspid and tricuspid valves are closed.


T/F Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume times the systolic blood pressure.


T/F Reductions in venous return cause reductions in both stroke volume and cardiac output.


T/F An increased firing of the parasympathetic nervous system causes increased cardiac output.


T/F Smooth muscle and elastic tissue in a blood vessel wall is found primarily in the tunica media.


T/F The larger arteries contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.


T/F Exchanges between blood and tissue cells occur in capillary beds.


T/F When precapillary sphincters are closed, blood flows through the shunts and bypasses the tissue cells.


T/F The portion of the aorta in the abdominopelvic cavity is known as the thoracic aorta.


T/F The three branches of the aortic arch are the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery.


T/F The superior and inferior mesenteric arteries drain blood from the intestines.


T/F The common iliac vein drains blood into the inferior vena cava.


T/F Veins draining the head and arms empty into the inferior vena cava.


T/F The great saphenous vein, the longest vein in the body, drains deoxygenated blood from the dorsal venous arch in the foot which then empties into the femoral vein.


T/F The circle of Willis involves blood flow through the liver.


T/F The major vessels involved in hepatic portal circulation are the inferior and superior mesenteric arteries, the splenic artery, and the left gastric artery.


T/F The umbilical vein carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus.


T/F In fetal circulation, blood travels directly from the right atrium to the left atrium through the foramen ovale.


T/F Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction.


T/F An increase in blood vessel diameter causes arterial blood pressure to decrease.


T/F Hypotension is diastolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg.


T/F Cold temperatures have a vasoconstricting effect on blood vessels.


Heart chamber with the thickest wall

left ventricle

Superior discharging chamber on the left side of the heart

left ventricle

Heart chamber that pumps blood to the pulmonary trunk

right ventricle

Heart chamber that contains the sinoatrial node

right atrium

Roof of this chamber contains the bicuspid valve

left ventricle

The coronary sinus empties blood from cardiac

right atrium

The four pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to this chamber

left atrium

This chamber sends blood into the aorta

left ventricle

Part of the cardiac cycle when the coronary system is emptying of blood

ventricular systole

Part of the cardiac cycle when the bicuspid and tricuspid valves are open

ventricular systole

Part of the cardiac cycle when both of the semilunar valves are closed

ventricular systole

These vessels carry blood away from the heart


These vessels return blood to the heart


Superior and inferior vena cava are classified as these types of vessels


The aorta is classified as one of these vessels


These vessesls have thicker walls and a heavier tunica media


Nutrient and gas exchange occur in these vessels


Blood pressure in these vessels is low


These vessels have thinner walls and transport oxygen-poor blood


Some of these larger vessels have valves to prevent


Venules drain these tiny vessels


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