GeoSc 040 Exam 1
Penn State Oceanography
Terms in this set (110)
Earth is just the right temperature and density for sustaining the presence of water
On average, in the tropics, temperature & salinity of ocean deep water is very similar to that of shallow surface water
Have polar (unequally distributed) change that leads to many of water's unusual characteristics. 2 hydrogen atoms of water are NOT symmetrical
Suggested that rain & other factors weather the continents & rivers deliver dissolved rock to the ocean
There is less disolved carbon dioxide in deepwater of the ocean than in ocean's surface water
Ocean water is most likely formed
From degassing of materials from Earth's interior
Latent Heat of fusion for water is 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice?
Number of calories the temperature of a given mass by one degree centigrade
Change of state without a change in temp requires energy
Example of Latent Heat
Boiling 1 gram of liquid water at 100 degrees C (turning it into vapor)
It is given by the ratio of the total amount of the element in seawater divided by input rate
Saltwater is more dense than fresh water
Seawater density is determined primarily by salinity & temperature
Many element are dissolved in seawater, but Na is the most abundant and Cl is the second most abundant
Elements in Ocean
Cl, Na, SO4, Mg, Ca, K
The influence of inputs from river water, outputs such as evaporites, and interaction of seawater with the seafloor
The terms sensible heat, heat capacity, and latent heat all refer to the same thing
Decreases as Temperature increases
For gases dissolved in seawater, solubility...
Gases increase as temperature falls while salinity rises & decrease as temperature rises while salinity falls
The average chemical composition of river water is the same as that of seawater
Greenhouse gases & Global Warming
Earth receives most of its energy, called radiation, from the sun
Density of seawater
Increases as temperature falls and salinity rises
Surface zone, Pycnocline, Deep zone
Thermocline, Halocline, Pycnocline
zone with rapid change in temperature
zone with rapid change of salinity
zone with rapid density change
Of 17 billion Earth-sized worlds in the Milky way, most are so close to their stars that they we be far too hot for life as we know it
When gazing up at the stars, at least 70% of stars we see have a planet
A hurricane ______as it moves across the ocean sucking up warm, moist tropical aire from the surface & dispensing cooler air aloft
____ of the ocean is greater that the elevation of the continents
mis the Atlantic & Pacific Ocean with waters from the Baltic & Mediterranean seas over time
comes from the deep ocean, rain, runoff water and other sources.
Has different salinity, temperature, chemical composition, & density. Also is colder, saltier, and denser
Energy produced by random vibrations of atoms or molecules, a measure of how many molecules are vibration & how fast
an objects response to the input of removal of heat, records only how rapidly the molecules of a substance are vibrating
Will decrease it freezing point (salt on sidewalks when snowing), but will increase its boiling point (making spaghetti)
Why does ice float?
When the water freezes, hydrogen bonds have spaces between them causing them to be less dense
Hot rock setting up a circulation in the water; circulates the water through the open chambers. Found on the bottom of the ocean
oxygen production in surface waters. Consumption of C02
3. Carbon Dioxide
Latitude below 40 degrees N&S receive more solar engery than they lose
Hadley cells & Polar cells are caused by thermal anomalies associated with glaciers
____of Earth's surface causes: regions of low & high pressure at specific latitudes in both N&S hemispheres
Thermocline, Halocline, Pycnocline
refer to depth ranges in the ocean where water temperature, salinity, and density respectively vary strongly
There is more _______ in deepwater of the ocean than in surface waters. Organisms that respire produce this.
plays a role in the deflection of wind & ocean currents. Trade winds that blow East to West in both N & S Hemispheres.
Deflection of wind & currents to the _____ in the N. Hemisphere
Deflection of wind & currents to the _____ in the S. Hemisphere
Formation of large-scale ocean currents
Causes water to pile up in the interior of larges-scale ocean gyres, causing a slight surface slow & pressure gradient towards the outside
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain 02
Tropical regions have the highest surface waters temperature. Deep water has about the same temperature for each latitudinal zone
Large scale gyres in the ocean bring warm water from the tropics to the poles & cold water from the poles to the tropics
Circulation around a low pressure in N. Hemisphere is......
Heat & climate
Global oceanic circulation involving deep water & surface water motion acts to regulate Earth's.....
The Gulf Stream
.......transports heat from low to high latitudes
Large-scale gyres involve counterclockwise motion in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
.....is formed in The Weddell Sea and The Norwegian-Greenland Sea
In Earth's _____ western bound currents in the ocean bring warm water southward. Winds rotate clockwise around low pressure systems
Western Bound Currents
are fast flowing, narrow, and deep playing a role in ocean heat transport (The Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Current, EAC)
Eastern Bound Currents
are slower,broader movements of water
Overfishing of some species is something that might happen 50 years or so from now, but is not a problem currently
Shelf & coastal upwelling regions
Nearly 98% of global fish product occurs in .....
Latent heat transfer
Heat Transfer: Which does the most "work" in the transfer of heat from tropics to the poles (evaporation- precipitation)
Phytoplankton, apples, and whales are examples of.....
The oceans transport sensible and latent heat, transport plays a role in determining Earth's global....
The ocean appears blue green because of .....
Blue and Green
wavelengths that penetrate more deeply & are reflected by particles
wavelengths that are absorbed at shallow depths in seawater
When a fish swims into deep water (below 200m) what color does it appear to be?
How do you keep density right for marine fishes
Health of Global Marine Fisheries
Technical advances like refrigeration & large floating "fish factories" are one of the factors
Global Marine Fisheries
In 1976, the US joined other nations and forbid foreign vessels from fishing within 200 miles of coastline.
Sonars used by large scale fishing fleets to locate schools of fish
represents a substantial & growing part of world fish production
Predicts the net motion of surface water is 90 degrees to the right of the wind direction in the N. Hemisphere
Indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflaggellates. Occur mainly in the summer and can be caused by or exacerbated by aquaculture
Solutions for overfishing
:assign Fishing Rights & trade them like Pollution Credits
:Fishing rights are already being used for Pacific Halibut & Striped Bass
Passively floating organisms and the organic matter they produce is the source of energy for nearly all other ocean life
......major groups are Diatoms, Coccolithoporids, and Dinoglagellates
...is driven by the supple of deep water in photic zone. Produce more in the summer
Temperature, salinity, and predator-prey relationships.
Must float passively & remain in Photic Zone
Indicates consumption of Oxygen below surface water and production of CO2 in deep waters
Indicates oxygen production in surface and CO2 consumption in surface waters. Controls surface water chemistry of inorganic carbon and nutrients
Solubility of Gases
Gases dissolved more readily in cold water than in warm water. Cold freshwater can dissolve more gas than warm saltwater
The study of the origin of water, physical or chemical properties, circulation, are interactions, formation and morphology of the ocean basins
The ocean covers.....of the Earth's surface
Fact, Hypothesis, Theory, Law
Observation repeatedly confirmed
Testable statement about the natural world that is a working model
verified hypothesis that explains how things work
generalization about how some of the world behaves under certain circumstances
Steps of Scientific Method
Observation of materials. Development of questions of constraints. Create working hypothesis. Use observation to test hypothesis & collect data. Analysis of data. Formulate Conclusion
..releases energy, which is key to the development of hurricanes. Hurricanes strengthen from the release of Latent heat at high elevations within the eye causing air to warm up and rise
The average salinity of seawater is....
longest heat input required for water to change phases is during....
..supply a large proportion of dissolved solids to the oceans but are not the only important input
is influenced by evaporation of seawater, erosion of land & interaction with Earth's crust
sea salt aerosols, Biogenic sediments, inorganic sediments, interaction of seawater with hot basalt
from the evaporation in isolated basins provide a record of seawater chemistry (The Dead Sea)
....levels are higher at the surface because the sunlight allows photosynthesis to occur
Density of Seawater
.....increases as temperature drops and salinity increases
ranges from 0-30 degrees creating low-pressure zones along equator & high pressure along 30 degree latitudes
Ranges from 30-60 degrees where pressure alternates depending on location
ranges from 60-90 degrees consisting of sinking cold air heading towards equator
Gyres that have a clockwise spiral form in the.....
Gyres that have a counterclockwise spiral form in the ...
wind-blowing on surface layer creates a spiral column of water that has an overall average velocity moving to the right. Responsible for creating gyres
West Bound Currents in ocean bring warm water....
rapid increase in population of algae usually involving one or more types of phytoplankton. (shellfish poisoning)
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