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dark thick liquid commonly called oil

vertical integration

owning the businesses involved in each step off a manufacturing process

Patillo Higgins

person who first drilled for oil at Spindletop

Santa Rita No. 1

oil well that struck oil in 1923 and helped establish the Permanent University Fund


explorers who worked on their own when searching for new oil fields; engaged in risky business because many went bankrupt after drilling a few wells


not allied with any side during a conflict

Federal Reserve

central banking system that distributes money to other banks and helps regulate them

Elisabet Ney

well known sculptor who immigrated to Texas from Germany in 1872

John J. "Black Jack" Pershing

U.S. general who pursued Pancho Villa in northern Mexico

Theodore Roosevelt

American officer who led the Rough Riders in battle against Spanish forces in Cuba

kerosene, sprinkling on roads, lubrication

uses for oil prior to the invention of the automobile


location of first successful oil field in Texas


towers that support oil drilling equipment


production of oil here son began to drive the price of petroleum down;

natural gas

in the early days, operators burned huge quantities of this just to get rid of it; there was no was to safely transport it to market before the 1890s

Pancho Villa

invaded New Mexico in 1916


neighborhoods built outside cities

Spanish American War

American troops won a major victory in Cuba during this

Texas Water Commission

established by the state to protect water quality


Adina Emilia de Zavala tried to protect this from destruction by barricading herself in it for three days

World War I

nearly 200,000 Texans fought in this after the U.S. declared war in 1917

oil well spacing

began to be regulated by the state so that fields would not be exhausted so quickly

Vera Cruz

the U.S. feared the arrival of a German weapons shipment and sent Marines here in 1914

German Americans

viewed with suspicion in 1917 because the United States had gone to war with Germany

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