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Texas History Chapter 23/25

STUDY
PLAY
petroleum
dark thick liquid commonly called oil
vertical integration
owning the businesses involved in each step off a manufacturing process
Patillo Higgins
person who first drilled for oil at Spindletop
Santa Rita No. 1
oil well that struck oil in 1923 and helped establish the Permanent University Fund
wildcatters
explorers who worked on their own when searching for new oil fields; engaged in risky business because many went bankrupt after drilling a few wells
neutral
not allied with any side during a conflict
Federal Reserve
central banking system that distributes money to other banks and helps regulate them
Elisabet Ney
well known sculptor who immigrated to Texas from Germany in 1872
John J. "Black Jack" Pershing
U.S. general who pursued Pancho Villa in northern Mexico
Theodore Roosevelt
American officer who led the Rough Riders in battle against Spanish forces in Cuba
kerosene, sprinkling on roads, lubrication
uses for oil prior to the invention of the automobile
Corsicana
location of first successful oil field in Texas
derricks
towers that support oil drilling equipment
Spindletop
production of oil here son began to drive the price of petroleum down;
natural gas
in the early days, operators burned huge quantities of this just to get rid of it; there was no was to safely transport it to market before the 1890s
Pancho Villa
invaded New Mexico in 1916
suburbs
neighborhoods built outside cities
Spanish American War
American troops won a major victory in Cuba during this
Texas Water Commission
established by the state to protect water quality
Alamo
Adina Emilia de Zavala tried to protect this from destruction by barricading herself in it for three days
World War I
nearly 200,000 Texans fought in this after the U.S. declared war in 1917
oil well spacing
began to be regulated by the state so that fields would not be exhausted so quickly
Vera Cruz
the U.S. feared the arrival of a German weapons shipment and sent Marines here in 1914
German Americans
viewed with suspicion in 1917 because the United States had gone to war with Germany