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General Senses include:

somatic sensations, visceral sensations

Somatic sensations include:

tactile, thermal, pain, and proprioceptive

where are general senses located?

scattered throughout the body

What kind of sturcture do general senses have?

simple structures

Special senses include:

smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium

Where are the special senses located?

concentrated in specific location in the head

What kind of structures do special senses have?

anatomically distinct structures

Sense of smell is also callled what?


what kind of receptors are smell receptors?


How many receptors are in the olfactory epithelium?

between 10-100 million

What are cilia?

tiny hair like structures

location of the olfactory organs

upper nasal cavity, superior nasal conchae and a portion of the nasal septum

what do olfactory organs consist of?

receptor cells, supporting cells, basal stem cells

the cilia are sensitive to what kind of change?

chemical concentration

Columner epithelial cells provide:

physical support, nourishment, electrical insulation, detoxify chemicals

What is unusual about Basal Stem Cells?

they continuously divide

about how many oders can you detect?

about 10,000

process of sensing an oder

olfactory hair, g-protein activation, activation of odenylate cyclase, opening of Na+ channels, infow of Na+, generator potential, nerve impulse through olfactory nerves, olfacotry bulbs, olfactory tract, cerebral cortex

speed of olfactory receptors adaptation



elevated part of the tongue

what is located on the papillae

taste buds

three types of epithelial cells of taste buds

supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, basal cells

how many gustatory hari cells per taste buds?


Water (saliva)

chemicals must be dissolved in this in order to be tasted

5 types of taste

sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami

Location of sweet receptors

tip of tongue

location of sour receptors

lateral edges of the tongue

location of salt receptors

tip and upper lateral portion of the tongue

location of bitter receptors

posterior of the tongue

location of the umami receptors

posterior of tongue

Speed of taste receptors adapting


Taste impulses travel on what 3 nerves

facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus

3 regions of hearing

external, middle, and internal

parts of the external ear

auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane

Parts of the middle ear

auditory ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes auditory tube

parts of the internal ear

labyrinth (bony and membranous)

Bony labyrinth is


Membranous labyrinth is


Location of oval and round window

membranous region

length of external auditory meatus

2.5 cm long

what does the auricles collect?

sound waves

another name for the tympanic membrane


air filled space in the middle ear

tympanic cavity

what do the auditory ossicles do?

transmit vibrations between the external ear and inner ear and amplify sound waves


attached to the eardrum, vibrates when the eardrum does


passes vibrations from the malleus to the stapes


acts like a piston in the oval window transmitting vibrations to fluid in the inner ear

What does the fluid in the inner ear stimulate

hearing receptors

auditory or eustachion tube

connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx to help maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum

what makes the popping sound in your ears?

the ear is equalizing the pressure on both sides of the eardrum

ear infections

occure in the audiory tube

round window

opening of inner ear into middle ear

what is the round window covered by?

tympanic membrane

Tensor tympanic and stapedias muscles

attach to ossicles, help dampen large vibration of stapes protect oval window


inner ear is made up of a complex system of communicating chambers and tubes

2 types of labyrinths

membranous and osseous


extracellular fluid located within the cochlea

Perilymph and endolymph regulate

electrochemical impulses of hair cells

location of endolymph

inside the membranous labyrinth

names of the semicircular canals parts

anterior, posterior, lateral


snail shaped, contains a bony core and a thin bony shelves

parts of the cochlea

scalla bestibuli, scala tympani, bistoibular membrane, basilar membrane

scala bestibuli

chamber in the bony labyrinth above the cochlear duct, opens to the oval window

scala tympani

chamber below the cochlear duct, opens to the round window

vistibular membrane

seperates the cochlear duct from the scala vestibuli

basilar membrane

separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani

cochlear duct

chamber in the membraneous labyrinth which contains hearing receptors

Spinal organ

organ of hearing, rest on the basilar membrane inside of the cochlear duct

what kind of cells does the spiral organ have?

hair cells and supporting cells

first step of generating a sound

auricle directs sound waves into the external auditory meatus

2nd step of generating a sound

sound waves strike the eardrum causng it ot vibrate

3rd step of generating a sound

auditory ossicles amplify and transmit vibrations to end of staeps

4th step of generating a sound

movement of stapes at the oval window sets up fluid pressure waves in perilymph of cochlea

5th step of generating a sound

pressure waves are transmitted formt eh scala vestibuli to sala tympani and eventually the round window

6th step of generating a sound

as the pressure waves deform the walls of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, they pusth the vestibular membrane back and forth

7th step of generating sounds

different fraquences of vibrations in endolymph stimulate ifferent sets of recepter cells

8th step of generating sounds

as a receptor cell depolerizes its membrane becomes more permeable to calcium ions

9th step of generating sound

inward diffusion of calcium ions causes vesicles at the base of the receptor cell to release neurotransmitters

10th step of generating sound

neurotransmitters stimulate ends of nearby sensory neurons

11th step of generating sound

sensory impulses are triggeredon fibers of the cochlear branch of bestibulocochlear nerve

12th step of generating sound

nerve fibers carry impulses ot the auditoyr coctrices of the temporal lobes where they are interpreted

13th step of generating sound

audiory cortex of temporl lobe interprets sensory impulses

frequency of normal hearing

20-20,000 or more vibrations per second

2 types of equilibruim

static and dynamic

what does satic equilibrum maintain

position of the head whenthe head and body are still

what does dynamic equilibrum naintain

maintain balance when the head and body suddenly move and rotate

where are the organs of the static equilibrium located

vestibule of the inner ear and inside the utricle and saccule


tiny structure, consisting of hair cells, supporting cells

location of macula

inside the utricle and saccule


grains of cacium carbonate

semicircular canals

detect motion of the head, and they aid in balancing the head and body during duddne movement

cristae ampullans

organs of the dynamic equilibrium

location of cristae amullans

in the ampulla of each emicircular canal of the inner ear

rapid turning of the head or boyd generates impulses of the what?

cupula and hair cells bend


protects eye from foreign objects

4 parts of the eyelid

skin, muscle connective tissue and conjunctiva


thinest skin of the body

2 types of muslces in the eylid

orbicularis oculi, lavator palpebrae suerioris

orbicularis oculi

sloses the lids when it contracts

labator palpabrae supererioris

raises the upper lid thus helps open the eye

connective tissue

holds the different layers together


mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids

3 parts of the lacrimal apparatus

nasolacrimal ducts, lacrimal ducts, lacrimal glands

nasolacrimal ducts

two small ducts drain tears into the nasal cavity

lacrimal ducts

empy into the dedical corner of the eye

lacrimal glands

produce and secrete tears continuoulsy

function of tears

lubricate, cleanse, antibacterial agents

extrinsic mustle

attach to the sclera and move the eye in all directions

2 different types of extrinsic muscles

rectus and oblique

6 types of extrinsic eye muscles

superior rectus, inferir rectus medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, inferior oblique

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