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location of the olfactory organs
upper nasal cavity, superior nasal conchae and a portion of the nasal septum
Columner epithelial cells provide:
physical support, nourishment, electrical insulation, detoxify chemicals
process of sensing an oder
olfactory hair, g-protein activation, activation of odenylate cyclase, opening of Na+ channels, infow of Na+, generator potential, nerve impulse through olfactory nerves, olfacotry bulbs, olfactory tract, cerebral cortex
three types of epithelial cells of taste buds
supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, basal cells
what do the auditory ossicles do?
transmit vibrations between the external ear and inner ear and amplify sound waves
auditory or eustachion tube
connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx to help maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
what makes the popping sound in your ears?
the ear is equalizing the pressure on both sides of the eardrum
Tensor tympanic and stapedias muscles
attach to ossicles, help dampen large vibration of stapes protect oval window
4th step of generating a sound
movement of stapes at the oval window sets up fluid pressure waves in perilymph of cochlea
5th step of generating a sound
pressure waves are transmitted formt eh scala vestibuli to sala tympani and eventually the round window
6th step of generating a sound
as the pressure waves deform the walls of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, they pusth the vestibular membrane back and forth
7th step of generating sounds
different fraquences of vibrations in endolymph stimulate ifferent sets of recepter cells
8th step of generating sounds
as a receptor cell depolerizes its membrane becomes more permeable to calcium ions
9th step of generating sound
inward diffusion of calcium ions causes vesicles at the base of the receptor cell to release neurotransmitters
11th step of generating sound
sensory impulses are triggeredon fibers of the cochlear branch of bestibulocochlear nerve
12th step of generating sound
nerve fibers carry impulses ot the auditoyr coctrices of the temporal lobes where they are interpreted
what does dynamic equilibrum naintain
maintain balance when the head and body suddenly move and rotate
where are the organs of the static equilibrium located
vestibule of the inner ear and inside the utricle and saccule
detect motion of the head, and they aid in balancing the head and body during duddne movement
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