30 terms

The 1920's

Set 3 for Senechal's test
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How did the effects of WWI promote the fail of Progressivism?
-nasty, vicious war
-trench warfare
-new univalent and unhonorable manner of fighting
-brutality of war shattered the idea that humans are perfectible
(the aftermath of the war killed off progressivism more than the actual war)
Irony between WWI and Progressivism?
WWI was cast by Wilson to be a Progressive war to save the human race and promote democracy
Progressivism during and after the war?
1. during the actual war progressivism flourished
-business was prospering, wages were going up, labor conditions were improving
2. after the war America went back into its prewar status quo
-labor was worse, trusts were bad, etc
What killed Progressivism?
1. Treaty failure 2. Red Scare (A-Mitchell Palmer) 3. Immigration Restrictions (1921-1924) 4. Decline of Labor and Rise of Business Prestige
Why was the Treaty of Versailles considered a failure?
-seemed like a mockery of what americans were fighting for -not peace without victory but peace with revenge -expectations were high at our entry and then treaty was a failure -people thought we only went to war for big business to get money -H.L. Mencken created conspiracy theories in The Mercury(big business and war)
What caused the Red Scare?
-war focused on germans but then americans shifted focus to radicals like socialism(aka russia) -Russian Communist Revolution was successful during the middle of WWI
-Russians stopped helping American which meant the Germans only had to defend the west
-in 1919 the cost of living was 75% higher than it was in 1914, which meant that many unions went on strike for higher wages, which scared people about communism
-Americans were paranoid that revolution was imminent
-very strong Communist party in Germany
-scared that Europe was going to succumb to the reds
-a group of anarchists tried to murder a number of prominent politicians with mail bombs, basically a terrorist attack
A Mitchell Palmer
-wrote that everyone believed that we were on the verge of armed conflict
-someone blew up his front porch so he helped turn an isolated incident into a nationwide red scare
-Palmer hoped he would be the Democratic presidential candidate so he launched a search and deportation sweep that was received very positively by the public
-came to be called a "Palmer Raid"
-public originally applauded raids, but after the "big sweep" lawyers, newspapers, etc began to object
-raids didn't find anything, made the public feel like the whole thing had been overblown
-left Palmer in a difficult position so he tried to keep the public riled up about communism
-claimed there would be a huge strike on May 19th, 1920 and when nothing happened he looked like a joke
-fear of radicals disappeared but not nativism
What were "palmer raids"?
a search and deportation sweep that was received very positively by the public-often seized many people who were innocent
Immigration Restriction 1921 and 1924
Warren G. Harding passed the Emergency Quota Act 1921
-only 3% of the number of each ethnic group who were permitted in 1890 would be allowed to enter the US
-huge number of South Americans immigrated to fill empty jobs because they didn't have the restrictions like European immigrants
Emergency Quota Act 1921
only 3% of the number of each ethnic group who were permitted in 1890 would be allowed to enter the US
Why did labor idealism decline and big business take back over?
-in the 1920s public regard for labor went into the trashcan
-labor was tainted with the red brush of radicalism
-business was the most highly praised social phenomenon at the time
-Bruce Barton, 1925 -more scientific and less religious age
Bruce Barton
-Christian writer who published a book called "The Man who Nobody Knows"
-claimed that Jesus was an excellent businessman
What were the sources of prosperity in the 1920's?
1. Government helped business 2. Federal Reserves Board 3. growth of technology -higher and higher levels of productivity
-more efficient energy sources, electricity over steam and coal
-use of interchangeable parts
-construction industry boomed -Henry Ford 4. Automobile 5. Rise of advertising 6. New Psychology of abundance 7. Foreign Trade
What was the Federal Reserves Board?
-low interest rates
-meant more money to start and expand business
Why was Henry Ford relevant?
-invented the moving assembly line
-made it possible to produce about 9,000 cars a day
-enabled ford to drop the price of automobiles so that even the working class could afford them
What was the impact of the automobile?
-multiplier industry of the 1920s
-oil, rubber, steel, iron, glass, leather, etc
-gas stations, motels, road side restaurants
-people could live further and further away
-growth of automobile suburbs
-huge amounts of housing and road constructions
-Automobiles and Construction were the pillars of industry that our economy rested on
How did advertising affect the 1920's boom?
-visual advertising begins to resemble something we would recognize today
-automobile industry had huge, full page adds -high pressure sales(psychology) -rise of commission sales -buying on the installment plan i. declined labor conflicts ii. increased debt and credit
How did foreign trade affect US in 1920's boom?
-in the 1920s we switched from being a debtor nation to a creditor nation
-we were making money off interest
-in way better shape than Europe after the war
What were some of the new products and how did they impact us in the 1920's?
-the Radio
-meant music was instantaneous
-people would scrimp and save in order to be able to make payments on a radio in their home
-new and powerful opportunity for advertising
-movies
-new clothing and fabrics for women
-cosmetics
-you had to wear makeup now whereas earlier on prostitutes wore makeup
-household items
-toaster, vacuum cleaner, etc
What were the social conflicts of the 1920's?
1. Rural-urban tensions 2. scopes trial 3. Prohibition 4. Second KKK 1915 5. Revolution in manners and morals
What did the rural urban tensions lead to?
Fundamentalism -traditionalist, backwards looking view
-anti scientific
-anti cities
-promoted a rural life as the most honest way to live
-believed in patriarchal family structure
-strict interpreters of the bible
-opposition to Darwin's theory of evolution
-William Jennings Bryant supported drive to ban Darwinism
-Tennessee legislature banned Darwinism in schools
Scopes Trials
-a high school biology teacher decided to violate this new law in Tennessee and let the American Civil Liberties committee pay to defend it
-hired Clarence Darrow to defend high school teacher
-press turned the scopes trial into a circus: Darrow vs. Bryant
-Scopes lost, he got a slap on the wrist
-Bryant made the mistake of letting Darrow cross examine him on the stand
-by this point most ministers had come to terms with science
Why was prohibition fought for so strongly in the 1920's?
-it was another rural urban conflict -associated with immigrants -urban progressives believed it would create a more dependable working class
Results of prohibition
1. first few years it worked -public drunkeness went down -more attendance at ice cream parlors and soda shops 2. disrespect for laws and cynicism 3. nearly destroyed democratic party
Why didn't prohibition work?
total abstinence
What was original goals of 2nd kkk?
1. keep blacks in their place and terrorize carpet baggers 2.protector of community and christian moral 3. white protestant supremecy 4. target blacks, immigrants, non-protestants, catholics, jews
who was the founder of the second kkk?
William Simmons, a struggling alcoholic
-failed at everything until he formed the clan
-inspired by Birth of a Nation and that his father was in the original Clan
Why did the Klan's membership rise in the 1920's?
-by 1920, only a few thousand men had joined the Clan
-in 1920, the Clan hired two veteran advertisers Mary Tyler and Edward Clarke to get new members
-Tyler and Clarke turned the clan into a paying operation, got over a million members
-created an auxiliary for women and children
-knew how and what to sell
-Simmons had started with a fraternal emphasis, Tyler and Clarke tapped the fears of many Americans with immigrants, non Protestants, reds, etc
-in the end, more members in the north than in the south
-strongest clan state was Indiana
-Main had highest clan membership per capita
Why did membership of the kkk decline?
-membership started declining with corruption rumors
-thought clan leaders were siphoning off clan dues
-leader of the clan in Indiana was accused of kidnapping and mutilating a young secretary
Revolution in Manner and Morals?
creation of a youth culture that was distinctly different from adult culture
-largely critical of