AP Human Geo Country Case Studies

Geography: South Asia (sometimes Middle East, SW Asia)

Political: Unrest starting in 1979 with rebellions against the government. 100,000 Soviet troops defended the government, but unable to subdue the rebellion, they withdrew in 1989. The government collapsed in 1992, and the Taliban took control in 1995. This country has been a safe haven for terrorists like Bin Laden. The Taliban government sponsored terrorist training camps and suppressed the people of this country. In response to September 11, 2001, President Bush (43) ordered the invasion of this country.

Development: Sometimes characterized as Traditional Society in Rostow's model (primary sector, subsistence farming)

Agriculture: Illegal crop of Heroin/Opium, Pastoral Nomadism

Health: Avg. life expectancy is about 60. Among the highest IMR and Maternal Mortality rate.

Culture: 99% Muslim.
Region: South Asia

Social hierarchy/religion: Hinduism, hearth of Hinduism (Buddhism near too); caste system based on hierarchy and hereditary factors

Language: Indo European family, Indo Iranian Branch, East Indic Group. Hindi and English are the official languages.

Colonialism: British East India Company ruled 1757-1858, due to rebellions and unrest the British government ruled 1858-1947. Mahatma Gandhi, a pacifist, led a nonviolent movement to oppose colonial rule. Independence was achieved in 1947. English remains widely spoken as a second official language, and the # of English speakers has increased the popularity for India's Business Process Outsourcing. (Connect to New International Division of Labor)

Agriculture: Primarily intensive subsistence agriculture wet-rice dominant but also has large amounts of wet rice NON dominant intensive subsistence agriculture. Saw a HUGE growth in production of wheat and rice in the green revolution.

Demography: High ratio of males to females based on preference for male children. Birth rate is high, but they were the first country to begin a national family planning program (though their sterilization camps in 1971 were and remain fairly controversial). Brides are not often valued as bride-burnings and dowry deaths are common.

Development: Eager to cast off the vestiges of colonialism, they pursued the self-sufficiency approach to development after independence. It was ultimately abandoned in favor of International trade.

Urban: Megacities include Mumbai, Delhi. But they do not offer services equally, many live in slums.

1947: Partition of India. Created India and Pakistan (split between East and West Pakistan. East Pakistan is now known as Bangladesh). (Burma and Sri Lanka were also originally part of India when this split happened, but now have independence). The partition displaced between 10 and 12 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly divided countries. Conflict continues over territory etc.
Region: South Asia

Once a part of India, this state was created by the partition of India and continuing conflict. Pakistan was created as an independent homeland for South Asian Muslims.

Language: Urdu language, similar to Hindi but written with the Arabic Alphabet

History: This territory is considered one of the cradles of civilization including the Bronze Age Indus Valley hearth.

Political: Ethnic Civil war led to the secession of East Pakistan (Bangladesh); most recent constitution established a federal republic. It is a nuclear power

Demography: about 200 million people with a density of 633/sq mile.

Culture: 97% Muslim (2nd largest # of Muslims, after Indonesia) most are Sunni muslims. Lower GEM than many other areas though educational opportunities have increased.

Development: Medium HDI (.55),

Conflict with US: US war on terrorism spilled over from Afghanistan; Osama Bin Laden was killed in a compound in Pakistan, 75 miles from the capital; the US believed that Pakistan security was aware of Bin Laden's presense
Sri Lanka
Region: South Asia

Ethnicity: Three main ethnic groups: Sinhalese - 74% (Migrated from northern India in 400s BCE, Buddhist), Tamil - 16% Migrated from India in the 300s BCE, Hindu), Moors - 10% Ethnic Arabs Migrated from SW Asia (Middle East) in 700s CE Muslim)

Conflict: 2000 years of conflict between Sinhalese and Tamil; A recent war ended in 2009 with the defeat of the Tamil

Political: Republic, unitary state. Once a part of India, declared independence in 1948.

Development: One of the highest developed countries in South Asia. The country's main economic sectors are tourism, tea export, clothing, rice production and other agricultural products.

Religion: 70% Buddhist, next religion is Hindu, then Islam
Region: North Africa

History: One of the cradles of civilization (Nile River); one of the first 6 civilizations

Religion: Primarily Islam (Sunni) with a significant Christian minority (and a Shia minority)

Demography: 92 million +, most populous country in North Africa. Most people cluster near the Nile River. High physiological density (people per arable land). Life expectency now up to about 70

Economy: Over 3 million Egyptians work abroad as guest workers (Saudi Arabia, Persian gulf, Erope); economy depends on Petroleum imports, natural gas and tourism

Urban: Cairo is now a metropolitan area. Alexandria was one of the largest cities in the ancient world. (& Still has over 4 million people)

Suez Canal: Allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigating around Africa

Political: Formerly a colony of the UK. Has had a few dictatorships since independence. Part of the Arab Spring in 2011; widespread protests got rid of Mubarek. Participated in the Six Day War against Israel

Climate: Hot, dry, lots of desert.

Medium HDI (about .69)
Geography: North Africa

Known for State sponsored terrorism,

Strained relationship with the USA

Climate: Dry, desert

Industry: oil accounts for 80% of GDP. This country has the largest proven oil reserve in Africa.

Political: Took part in Arab Spring; country has been pretty war-torn since Gaddafi was ousted
Region: North Africa. :Largest country in Africa; includes a large part of the Sahara to the South

Demographic: 99% Arab-Berber (Arabic and Berber are the official languages); primarily Sunni Islam

Development: HDI is .736. Member of OPEC. Economy is reliant on petroleum.

Political" Formerly a colony of France (1830-1962). Many Europeans migrated to Algeria between 1825 & 1847 (and benefited from the government's confiscation of communal land from tribal people). French government wanted Algeria to be an assimilated part of France.
Political conflict: Western Sahara region-- annexxed in 1975, Guerilla war broke out with the Sahrawi natives until a cease fire in 1991)
(Algeria backed Sahrawi Rebel movement called--Polisario aimed to create an independent country, Morocco obviously disagrees)

Arabic and Berber are the main languages.
Formerly a British colony.

Several civil wars have raged in Sudan since 1983 resulting in genocide and ethnic cleansing. Sudan is around 70% Arab and 97% Muslim.

Darfur: Resenting discrimination and neglect from the Arab dominated national government, Darfur's black African ethnicities launched a rebellion in 2003. Marauding Arab nomads, known as the Janjaweed, with the support of Sudan's government, crushed Darfur's black population, made up of mainly settled farmers. 250k people in Darfur have been victims of genocide and another 2.5 million victims of ethnic cleansing (most of these victims live in dire conditions in refugee camps in the desert)

South Sudan: Now a new country!! War lasted from 1983 to 2005 between northern and southern ethnicities and caused the death of about 1.9 million Sudanese. The war ended with hte establishment of South Sudan as an independent state in 2011. In contrast to the predominantly Muslim North, the two largest ethnicities of South Sudan are predominantly Christian Dinka and folk religionist Nuer. Sadly, independence from the Arab Muslims in the North has not brought peace as South Sudan's diverse ethnicities have not been able to work together either
Region: Southwest Asia

Has a 75% Arab ethnicity, 17% Kurdish ethnicity, and most have stronger loyalty to a tribe or clan than to a state or major ethnicity

Iraq conflict with Iran:
Iraq invaded Iran in 1980, war lasted until 1988 and was fought over border disputes. Iran quickly regained any lost territories and then went on the offensive; deadliest war fought between regular armies of developing countries; lots of child soldiers used

Iraq conflict with US
The US attacked in 2003 to dispose of Saddam Hussein because of suspicions of chemical weapons.
Region: SW Asia

Language: Hebrew-- which had previously been an extinct language until it was revived.

Religion: Judaism
An island south of Turkey ethnically split between Greece and Turkey. (18% is Turkish, 78% Greek.) It gained independence from Britian in 1960, until in 1974 when Greek military officers seized control of the government
Saudi Arabia
Largest and most populous country in the Arabian Peninsula. It has gained wealth extremely rapidly as oil prices rose during the 1970's and reinvested petroleum revenue for infrastructure improvements. The Bedouins also practice pastoral nomadism
Region: Southwest Asia

Ethnic conflict between the 40% of Christians who view themselves as descendant from ancient Phoenicians, and the 60% of Muslims who view themselves as ethnically Arab.
Independence was gained in 1943, with a civil war between 1975-1990
Region: Southwest Asia

Ethnicity: Persian with some Azeri, Baluchi and Kurds

Conflict with the US: 1979 - A revolution overthrows the pro-US dictator, supporters of Ayatollah Ruholia Khomeini proclaimed Iran as an Islamic republic while militants sweided the US embassy and held 62 Americans hostage (over 1 year)

Conflict with Iraq:
Region: Central Asia

Religion: Primarily Muslim

Ethnicity: 67% Kazakh, 18% Russian

Geography issues: Aral Sea being drained over time due to diverting tributaries

Twice as large in area as the other central Asia countries combined. They have been moderate in part due to their success in economic growth, and there have been government efforts to resettle pastoral nomads, as well as the fact that they want to use the land for agriculture/development
Region: North America

Demographics: Stage 4 of the DTM, population concentrated in urban areas, NIR is 2.41 people per 1000 (low natural increase but high migration), 20% foreign born population

Culture: English and French are the primary languages; two primary cultures-- French Speaking Quebec and English speaking. 67% Christian (mostly Protestant) but the religious rights of Catholic French Canadians are protected by law.

Devolution- Until recently Quebec was one of the poorest and least developed provinces. Politics and economics were historically dominated by English-speaking minority of Quebec....now, there have been multiple referendums for Quebec to get independence-- so far these have lost but with slim margins.

Political: Unfortified border with the US is geometric and is the longest in the world. Lower GII than in the US because they have a lower maternal mortality and higher GEM.

Development: More freshwater than any country on earth, large petroleum reserves, member of NAFTA; Southeastern Ontario is the most important industrial area (near Great Lakes)

Cities: 80% are urbanized, clustering in cities near the border or in the inland cities of Quebec, Montreal, Toronto and Ottawa

Language: French and English are the two official languages. French speakers are about 25% of the country and are clustered in Quebec. Quebec has made the use of French mandatory in many daily activities. Until recently, Quebec was poor and less developed due to cultural isolation.
Political: Unitary state with strong national government

Language: French (Romance Language, Indo-European). The French Academy (an authority on French language) tried to ban Franglais but failed

Urban: Primate City Rule; Sector Model example: Wealthy populations are clustered at higher elevation, near the royal palace with urban cells with distributed services, mixed residential and commercial.

Demographics: Pursuing pro-natalist policies to raise fertility rate
Political: Fragmented state with over 13,677 islands, Most are concentrated on Java; they are forcibly relocating people from Java to outlying islands, which is resulting in some ethnic conflict.

Demographics: World's fourth most populous country.

Religion: Islam

Economics: Major oil exporter, member of OPEC
Population: Stage 3 of the DTM; changed from primarily rural society based on agriculture to an urban society in which most people now work in factories, offices and shops, but most still have large families.

Religion: Mostly Catholic

Political: Elongated state, mountain border
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled people to live longer (reducing CDR); however, birth rates remain high
Folk Culture

Distribution: Clustered in the US, migrated to North America primarily for religious freedom. (Many in Lancaster county, PA or in SW Kentucky)
Africa's most populous country.

Language: Has 514 distinct languages, only a few of which have widespread use. In addition, they have several different ethnicities.

Political: They moved the capital from Lagos in the Yoruba ethnicity dominated SW to Abuja in the center. (Seen as a neutral location)
Culture: Southern Belgium: Wallonia (speak French), Northern Belgians (Flanders) speak Flemish (a Germanic language)

Political: Devolution and antagonism between Flanders and Wallonia; both are run as independent regions though many in Flanders want Belgium to be split. If that happened, Flanders would be one of the richest countries and Wallonia would be one of the poorest.

Economic: Wallonia has historically dominated Belgium's economy and politics
The Dutch have modified their environment with distinctive types of construction projects (polders and dikes).

The Netherlands has 6500 square kilometers of polders, comprising 16% of the land area . (Land reclaimed from the sea-- today, most of the polders are reserved for agriculture to reduce dependence on food imports. Some are used for housing and one is used for an airport).

The second main modification of the landscape is the construction of massive dikes to prevent the North Sea from flooding much of the country.
1st main era of US Immigration (colonial settlement)
62% of immigrants came from Europe, an d of those, 45 to 50% came from the lands comprising the modern day United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

The other main origin point for (about 38% of immigrants) was Africa. Most African Americans are the descendants of the Africans forced to migrate to the western hemisphere as slaves. Importing Africans as slaves was made illegal in 1808 but an additional 250,000 were brought during the next 50 years.
2nd main era of US immigration (Mid 19th to Early 20th century)
Between 1820 to 1920 about 32 million people immigrated to the US.

Nearly 90% immigrated from Europe.

1840s/1850s: 3/4 of all immigrants in this time came from Ireland and Germany (desperate economic push factors and political unrest in Germany)

1870s: Ireland and Germany- immigration from Ireland and Germany resumed, after a temporary disruption during the Civil War

1880s: Scandinavia-- increasing numbers of Scandinavians (esp Swedes and Norwegians) joined Germans and Irish in migrating to the US. (The IR in Scandinavia triggered rapid population growth)

1905-1914: Southern and Eastern Europe. 2/3 of all immigrants in this period came from Southern and Eastern Europe, especially Italy, Russia and Austria Hungary. (Coincides with the diffusion of the IR and resulting population growth)
3rd era of Immigration to the US. Late 20th to early 21st centuries.
Immigration dropped sharply in the 1930s/1940s during the Great depression. Numbers began increasing again in the 50s and then surged to historically high levels in the first decade of the 21st century.

Over 3/4 of these recent immigrants have emigrated from either Latin America or Asia.

Mexico officially passed Germany in 2006 as the country to send the most immigrants to the US/.
Demographics/Urban: Most Brazilians live in a string of large cities near the East Coast. Brazil's tropical interior is sparsely inhabited. To increase the attractiveness of the interior, the government moved its capital in 1960 from Rio de Janiero to the newly built Brasilia, situated 60 miles from the coast. (Forward capital!)

Brazil's northern coast (and the northern part of the inland area) is primarily covered by the Amazon tropical rain forest and has the highest percentage of indigenous people. Unfortunately, logging is now threatening this folk culture.
Asia's migrant workers
The world's largest sources of migrants in search of work emigrate from South and East Asia. (India, Bangladesh, China and Pakistan) . An estimated 50 million Chinese and 25 million Indians live in other countries. (The wealthy oil-producing countries of SW Asia have been major destinations for people from South Asian countries)
Tiny country of 79,000 situated in the Pyrenees mountains between Spain and France. Official language is Catalan. (Which is a Romance language)
Ethnicity: 1% of the population is aboriginal. Now, many elements of aboriginal culture are being preserved, but education is oriented to teaching English rather than maintaining local languages.

English is the language of instruction throughout Australia and all others are relegated to the status of second language. As a result, Australia has 211 living indigenous languages, but each of them has fewer than 10,000 speakers
New Zealand
Ethnicity: 14% of the population is Maori (descendant of the Polynesians who migrated there around 1000 years ago). The government has adopted policies to preserve the Maori language--- in fact. English, Sign Language and Maori are the three official languages of New Zealand. (Though only 4% are fluent in Maori and most are over 50-- therefore, Maori is classified as a threatened language)

Migration: In most circumstances, immigrants to New Zealand need to be fluent in English.
Wales was conquered by the English in 1283 and remains a part of the United Kingdom. Welsh remained the dominant language until the 19th century when many English speakers moved there to work in coal mines and factories.

The Welsh language Society has been instrumental in preserving hte language; it is compulsory in all schools in Wales (they have also added history and music to the curriculum) and in 2011 the UK made Welsh the official language in Wales. All local government and utility companies must provide services in Welsh, BBC produces welsh language radio and tv shows, and knowledge of welsh is required for certain jobs. Nevertheless, in the 2011 census 73% of people living in Wales reported that they had no Welsh skills.
Conquered by the UK, the last known native speaker of Cornish died in 1777. Cornish was revived in the 20th century and about 500 people claim fluency in the languages.
Part of France (an isolated peninsula in the Atlantic); Breton is the language spoken and while it is a Celtic language, it borrows more words from French than others do.

The number of Breton speakers has declined from around 1 million in 1950 to 200,000 today, and 75% of them are over age 65.

The government of France requires that French be the language of instruction in their schools.
Northern Ireland
Part of the United Kingdom.

Primarily Protestant.
Republic of Ireland
No longer a part of the UK.

Irish is one of 2 official languages here (along with English). In the 1300s, the English forbid the Irish from using their own language, however there are now cultural efforts to revive the use of Irish Gaelic.

Primarily Catholic.

The border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (part of the UK) was at least partially drawn by religion.
Part of the United Kingdom.

Language: Scottish Gaelic; it is a germanic language separate from English.

The people of Scotland recently had a referendum on whether or not to leave the UK. For now, they have voted to remain a part of the UK however there is a growing sepratist movement.
Asians in Guyana, Uganda etc
Many British brought Indians with them as servants. When the British left, the servants could not afford to leave. They often face discrimination today as minority groups.
(Former) Yugoslavia
In the Balkans region, Yugoslavia was created to unite several Balkan ethnicities with similar South Slavic language. Rivalries among ethnicities resurfaced in Yugoslavia during the 1980s after the longtime leader Josip Tito died, leading to a breakup into 7 countries. Several episodes of ethnic cleansing ensued.

Ethnic cleansing occurred in Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo, where ethnic and country boundaries were especially poorly matched.
South Sudan
South Sudan: Now a new country!! War lasted from 1983 to 2005 between northern and southern ethnicities and caused the death of about 1.9 million Sudanese. The war ended with hte establishment of South Sudan as an independent state in 2011. In contrast to the predominantly Muslim North, the two largest ethnicities of South Sudan are predominantly Christian Dinka and folk religionist Nuer. Sadly, independence from the Arab Muslims in the North has not brought peace as South Sudan's diverse ethnicities have not been able to work together either.
The Korean peninsula is divided between the Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

Korea was a colony of Japan for 35 years and was then divided into 2 occupation zones by the US and former USSR after they defeated Japan in WWII. The USSR installed a pro-communist government in the North, the US installed a pro-US government in the South.

North Korea invaded South Korea 1950 sparking a 3 year war that ended in a cease fire at the 38th parallel. Both sides are committed to reuniting the country into one sovereign state, however, they continue to disagree on the form of government.

North Korea is one of the world's poorest and most isolated countries and since 1948 has been governed by a dictatorship. (They also build and test nuclear weapons despite providing their citizens with food, electricity and other basic needs)
Most countries consider Taiwan and China to be separate and sovereign states. According to China's government, Taiwan is not sovereign but a part of China.

The split arose during the Chinese Civil war in the late 1940s between the Nationalists and the Communists. After losing in 1949, Nationalist leaders fled to Taiwan, 125 miles off the Chinese coast, and claimed they were still the legitimate rulers of China. They planned to one day defeat the communists and recapture China, and at least continue to govern the island.

In the 1970s, the US finally recognized the Chinese Communists as the legitimate ruler of China (and the UN also voted to transfer China's seat from the Nationalists to the Communists).
Sahrawi Republic/Western Sahara
The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is also known as the Western Sahara. Most African countries recognize this as a sovereign state.

However, Morocco claims the territory and to prove it, they built a 1700 mile wall around the territory to keep out rebels.

Morocco controls most of the poplated area, but the Polisario Front operates in the vast, sparsely inhabited deserts, especially the part of the territory East of the wall.

The UN has unsuccessfully tried to reach a resolution among the parties.
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union existed from 1922 to 1991; after its break up it was divided into 15 states. Russia, 3 baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), 3 European states (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine), 5 Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and 3 Caucasus States (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)

The USSR was created when Lenin seized power in the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and eventually renamed the country the USSR. Territory was added especially after WWII as Stalin wanted a buffer zone to protect against European aggression.

Communist government and economy.
The Soviet Union existed from 1922 to 1991; after its break up it was divided into 15 states. Russia, 3 baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), 3 European states (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine), 5 Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and 3 Caucasus States (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)

The Russian constitution grants autonomy over local government affairs to around 2 dozen of the most numerous ethnicities. Local government units with a large ethnic population are allowed to designate the ethnic language as an official language in addition to Russia.

One major conflict in the current world is over the Crimea region in Ukraine. Ukraine's minority Russian population started an uprising in the eastern region of Ukraine, where they were clustered (it also possesses coal deposits, a steel industry etc). The Russian government intervened and invaded and seized Crimea claiming that the Russian ethnic minority was endangered. Russia annexed Crimea in 2014, but most countries in the world recognize Ukraine's sovereignty over Crimea.
A former country in the USSR.

Moldovans are ethnically indistinguishable from Romanians, and Moldova was part of Romania until the USSR took it in 1940. After independence, many Moldovans pushed for reunification with Romania BUT it isn't that simple as the USSR increased the size of Moldova by about 10% in 1940, taking a 1200 sq mile area of and from Ukraine-- and the inhabitants of this large parcel of land (mostly Russians and Ukranians) oppose reunification with Romania.
Over 3000 years ago, the Armenians controlled an independent kingdom in the Caucasus. They converted to Christianity in 303, and lived as an isolated Christian enclave under the rule of Turkish Muslims.

A century ago, an estimated 1 million Armenians were killed by Turks in a genocide. After WWI, allied powers created an independent Armenia but it was divided between Turkey and the USSR in 1921 and only regained its state status with the fall of the USSR.
Cyprus is comprised of 2 main nationalities, Greek and Turkish. Although the island is physically closer to Turkey, Turks are only 24% of the population.

Several Greek Cypriot military officers who favored the unification ofc Cyprus with Greece seized control of the government in 1974. Shortly after the coup, Turkey invaded Cyprus to protect the Turkish Cypriot minority. The Greek coup leaders were removed within a dew months, an elected government was restored but the Turkish army remained.

The northern 36% of the islandcontrolled by Turkey declared itself the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983 but only Turkey recognizes it as a separate state.

A wall was built between the two areas and a buffer zone patrolled by the UN was delineated across the entire island.

Historically, the Greek and Turkish Cypriots had mingled, but after the wall and buffer zone were established, they became geographically isolated.
Andes Mountains
Physical boundary between Argentina and Chile.
Democratic Republic of Congo
Central Africa;s largest and most populous country with considerable mineral wealth, this is also one of the most multiethnic countries, estimated to be home to more than 200 distinct ethnicities. Most Congolese are classified as ethnic Bantus but there are far more ethnic groups.

The Congo is considered to have suffered from the most deadliest wars in the past 70 years. Over 5 million have died in the ongoing Civil Wars (mostly from malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and malnutrition, all aggravated by displacement and unsanitary living conditions).

Tutsis were instrumental in the overthrow of Congo's longtime president Joseph Mobutu in 1997. The new president (Laurent Kabila) relied heavily on Tutsis and allowed them to kill some Hutus who had been responsible for atrocities against Tutsis. But then the new president (Laurent Kabila) split with them, and once again the Tutsis were offering support to rebels seeking to overthrow the government.

Kabila then turned to Hutus and other ethnic groups who hated the Tutsis for support. Armies from Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe and other countries who hated the Tutsis came to his aid, but despite this, he was assassinated in 2001.
Rwanda (and Burundi)
Tiny countries in central Africa that have suffered from especially severe genocide.

Hutus were settled farmers, growing crops in the fertile hills and valley sof present day Rwanda and Burundi.

Tutsis were cattle herders who migrated to this area from the Rift Valley of Kenya about 400 years ago.

Hutus were a majority historically, but Tutsis controlled kingdoms there for several hundred years and turned the Hutus into their serfs. They became Colonies of the Germans during the 1880s, then of Belgium between 1924 and 1962. During this period, the Tutsis retained leadership positions.

When Rwanda became independent in 1962, Hutus gained power and undertook ethnic cleansing and genocide against the Tutsis.

Descendants of the ethnically cleansed Tutsis invaded Rwanda in 1990, launching a 3 year Civil War.

Meanwhile, in Burundi (where the Tutsis remained in power), a civil war resulted in genocide committed by and against Hutus and Tutsis.

An agreement to share power in Rwanda was signed in 1993 but then (a Tutsi, we think) shot down a plane carrying the Hutu president of Rwanda and Hutus launched a genocide campaign killing an estimated 800,000 Tutsis in Rwanda and 300,000 in Burundi.

However, the Tutsis prevailed in both countries and reprisals by Tutsis added to the total fatalities.

Rwanda is still governed by Tutsis but Burundi has now been led by democratically elected Hutus since 2005.

The conflict between Hutus and Tutsis has also spilled over into the Congo.
Leading source of immigrants to the US (documented and undocumented)

Border with the US: •Nearly 2000 miles long
•Policed by the Border Patrol, but relatively small number of agents in some areas
•A barrier covers 1/4 of the distance
part of it is also a physical border (Rio Grande)

Large gap between rich & poor
Higher wealth near to the border and tourist Yucatan Peninsula
Semi periphery

Manufacturing has increased in Mexico
-Labor intensive industries
-Maquiladoras: Tax breaks for importing materials from U.S.
(Backlash from labor and environmental groups in U.S.)
NAFTA eliminated barriers between countries in N. America