46 terms

Unit 13 - The Respiratory System

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Terms in this set (...)

internal respiration
exchange of gases between blood and tissue fluid and between tissue fluid and cells.
diaphragm
a muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the lower abdominopelvic cavity.
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx.
expiration
act of expelling air from the lungs; exhalation.
alveolus
one of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs.
pleura
two-layered serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and covers the external surface of the lung.
oxyhemoglobin
oxygen-bound form of hemoglobin.
hyperpnea
breathing that is deeper and more vigorous, but with unchanged respiratory rate, as during exercise.
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae, making breathing painful.
hypoxia
condition in which inadequate oxygen is available to tissues.
epiglottis
elastic cartilage at the back of the throat; covers the opening of the larynx (glottis) during swallowing.
surfactant
secretion produced by certain cells of the alveoli that reduces the surface tension of water molecules, thus preventing the collapse of the alveoli after each expiration.
dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing; air hunger.
visceral pluera
Serous membrane that covers each lung.
parietal pluera
outermost layer of lung, Line the walls of the thoracic cavity
nasal conchae
three projections inside nasal cavity which increase air turbulence
paranasal sinuses
located in the sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary, and frontal bones they surround the nasal cavity and make the skull lighter; they also serve as resonance chambers for speech
lingual tonsils
a mass of lymphoid tissue, which covers the base of the tongue posterior to the oral cavity proper
palatine tonsils
located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible through the mouth
external respiration
exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
A
inspiratory reserve
B
tidal volume
C
expiratory reserve volume
D
residual volume
A, B, and C
vital capacity
A, B, C, and D
total lung volume
a
the pharynx
b
the trachea
c
the larynx
d
the carina
e
a main bronchus
f
the left lung
g
the diaphragm
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
asthma
chronic condition that affects the small air passage of the lungs; when exposed to certain triggers, the airways narrow
bicarbonate ion
HCO3-
conchae
Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area and create turbulence
dead space volume
air in respiratory passages that does not contribute to gas exchange
eupnea
normal breathing
hyperventilation
abnormally prolonged and deep breathing
intrapleural pressure
pressure in the plueral cavity, always less than pressure in the lungs; negative pressure
phrenic nerves
stimulate the diaphragm and causes it to contract
residual volume
amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation
tidal volume (TV)
quantity of air moved into and out of the lungs during a normal breath (500ml)
vital capacity (VC)
total amount of exchangeable air
vocal folds
mucosal folds that function in voice production (speech); also called the true vocal cords.