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Key terms for passing the Bilingual Supp 164 Vocabulary Laws Court cases Bilingual Programs NOTE: some defitions are in my own words to help me better memorize the material.

Plyler vs Doe

Allow children of undocumented parents to receive a free education

Lau vs Nichols

Better education for minority linguistic students

Meyer Vs Nebraska

Cannot teach German before 8th grade

Castaneda Vs Pickard

Three-part assessment responsible for meeting the requirements of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
•Based on sound educational theory.
•Implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space."
•After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.

Rios vs Reed

Case: use of L1 while developing English Proficiency

Ramirez Study 1984

US gov sponsored study comparing the effectiveness of 3 program models:
early exit
late-exit developmental
structured english immersion

Air Study

it challenged and identified flaws. Lacked Clarity.


can read and write in 2 languages


2 distinct cultures present


sentence structure


to get used to

Linguistic Assimilation

lose L1 while using L2


members within the same society accept values/principles of other cultures.


intro to new elements of culture


the study of sound


word formation. Words are made up of units of meaning called morphemes
EX: CARS= CAR root word and S indicating plural


is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.


1 word has multiple meanings
EX: HOT = temperature, fashion, or luck

Reciprocal Teaching

Predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing contribute to comprehension.

Graph- phonemic awareness

Sequence of letters (or graphemes) represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words. (letters = words)
Dif. sound each letter makes in certain words

Phonemic Awareness

to recognize the phonemes (sounds). In K- rhyming/ orally producing/manipulatives.

Phonological Awareness

The ability to recognize the sounds (segment words into units called syllables)

emergent readers

use various formats to understand print


location of function of sides of brain

Derivational Morphemes

Begining of word
EX: Pre, anti, sub

Inflectional Morphemes

ending of word
EX: -ing, -s, -es, -est


EX: espeak or estring

portfolio assessment

track of progress toward language and content mastery


checking comprehension, a passage with omitted words the test taker must supply.

standards based

taught in a comprehensible manner

Sheltered English Instruction

Teachers modify to increase comprehensible input. Use of demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers and cooperative grouping.

concurrent approach

teachers knows info and is able to pass down in both languages


only ENGLISH is used

threshold hypothesis

theory that provides support for late-exit bilingual programs
1) avoid negative effects of bilingualism
2) Experience positive effects of bilingualism.

Alphabetic Principle

Connect letters with sounds to create words


Both english and L1 are used.

transitional bilingual/ Early-Exit Bilingual Programs

•L1 and L2 used, with quick progression to all or most instruction in L2
•Assist transition to English. Goal: transfer to L2 only classroom.

developmental bilingual education

keep L1 while learning L2 for students to be able to function academically and socially

Two-way bilingual programs: (dual language)

50/50 balance/instruction between both languages.

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (S.D.A.I.E.)

teaching content in English to students still learning

•Requires intermediate fluency in English and mastery of L1.
•English content supported by L1 and comp. input Instruction

self contained bilingual education

receive min 45 minutes of ESL instruction to promote english development

*Best ensures academic success


sounds->words-> sentences and larger to achieve oral and written communication


sheltered english instruction is more appropriate for students who are at the intermediate or advanced proficiency level in English

natural order

students acquire English structures in a predictable sequence with variations depending on L1

4 stages:
1) Preproduction (listening skills) - teachers chose level.
2) Early production (two words and short phrases) - teachers chose level.
3) speech emergence (long phrases and simple sentences)
4) Intermediate fluency - focus on maximizing comprehensible input in low anxiety situations.


developed audio lingual method saying children are born with a clean slate-tabula rasa

Proficiency level Descriptors

•Little or no ability to understand spoken English.
•Struggle to identify words/phrases
•Doesn't seek clarification
•Remains silent

•Understands simple, high frequency spoken English
•Understands simple or routine directions
•Identify key words
•Seek clarification

•Understands social and academic language with support
•Understand longer, elaborated instructions

•Beginning: single words/ short phrases
oLack English grammar
•Intermediate: simple/ original messages
oUse basic vocabulary/ emerging vocabulary
•Advanced: Comfortable


use of L1 and L2 this fascilitates L2 acquisition


Slowly lose L1


Responsible for identifying, placing, and assessing ELL (Composed of teachers, parents, and administrators.)

•LPAC advocates assuring, affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs are met.
•Review data upon initial enrollment and annually.


Language Experience Approach

Promote reading/writing through personal experience (they chose the difficulty level of vocabulary/grammar)


ELPS: Expectations for EVERY content area (all lessons must include both content objectives and language objectives)

•need social and academic language skills
•Opportunities to listen, speak, read and write using current skills and building skills.
•Establishes Proficiency levels: (not grade-specific and students may be at different levels)

Proficiency levels:
Beginning- Use graphic org when taking notes or communicating ideas
Intermediate- participates in guided discussions/can write summary


Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System:

check progress made in bilingual programs and try to get student out of program (determine student level based on observations and work)


Spanish word that sounds similar in L2.
•facilitate comprehension (by use of context clues)

Cumming's Common Underlying Prof- CUP

cognitive academic skills known in L1 transfer to L2


admission, review, dismissal

Writing stages

Scribbling- letter like symbols

Random letters-create individual letters in attempt to create a word (randomly selected/no connection)

Invented words- students try to connect sound and letter i.e. Park = Prk

1882 Act to Regulate Immigration

Prohibited entry to people not able to care for themselves

Naturalization Act of 1996

must know English to naturalize

Cultural Deficiency Theory

says minority students do not perform well due to cultural differences

Natural Defense Act 1958

Funding for Math, Science and Foreign Language education.

Civil Rights Act: Title VI (1964)

prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the operation of federally assisted programs

Immigration Act 1965

immigrants welcomed for skills and professions (space limited per country)

Bilingual Education Act- Title VII (7)

provides funds for training and materials for a bilingual teacher.

HB 103

Defined English as primary language. Allowed for creation of Bilingual Education Programs K-6.

SB 121 Texas Bilingual Education and Training Act 1973

requires the starting of a bilingual program if no progress in LEP students

No Child Left Behind

Establishes English Language development assessment criteria for ELLs

Chapter 89 of the Texas Education Code

Requires BL and ESL programs- defines how students are identified, placed, and monitored.

HB 1 (2005)

LPAC must monitor ELL for 2 years after exit from program.

Cognitive academic language proficiency

Processing, memory, attention, logic, and reasoning


long and short sounds provides L1 and L2 connection

Word Maps

help identify relationship between known and new words.

Journal Writing

Journal writing for ELLs allows to take more risks

Factors affecting L2 acquisition

•Time in US
•Academic background
•Home/ school env.

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