37 terms



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A temporary short term movement of people to a destination away from their place of residence
Sustainable Tourism
A process which meets the needs of the present tourists and host communities while protecting and enhancing the needs of future generations
Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people
Beach Holidays
- Holidays meant for relaxing on the beach
- Sun bathing or water sports
- People from the UK often go to Spain or Greece during the summer- these resorts are usually by the beach
- Some beach resorts in Cyprus or Ayia Napa cater younger tourists with bars and clubs
Short City Breaks
- When tourists visit neighbouring countries
- Many european cities cater for short city breaks through offering low cost flights to cities such as Prague
- In the UK many people use the Euro tunnel to reach Paris
Activity Breaks
- These offer travellers more adventurous and challenging activities
- Whether it's kayaking, white water rafting or learning new skills
Health Tourism
- Nowadays many people travel abroad for health reasons
- This may be simply for a health spa, or even dentistry and plastic surgery
- Many people travel to Dubai for cosmetic surgery
Heritage and Cultural Tourism
- When people travel to learn the past about other countries
- Includes visiting sites of national importance such as historical buildings- castles in Windsor or Hindu temples in Sri Lanka
Seasonal Tourism
- A beach holiday would be during summer months
- Whilst an activity holiday such as skiing would be during winter months
Physical Attractions
Natural attractions that may include the climate and natural scenery
Human Attractions
Man made attractions which may include entertainment opportunities, historical monuments and tourists facilities
Social Reasons For Growth In Tourism
- Increase in leisure time
- Shorter working week
- Early retirement with pension
- Ageing population
- Development in technologies
Increase In Leisure Time
- Jobs now come with a holiday entitlement that us paid for
- Between April 2007 and 2009 holiday entitlement in the UK increased by 4 days to 28 days
- In 1981 there were 15 paid days of paid holidays a year in the UK
Shorter Working Week
The working week also shortened from 50 hours in a 6-day working week in the 1950s to 35- 40 hours in a 5-day week nowadays
Early Retirement With Pension
The number of retired people has increased. As they receive pensions, they invest more in tourism- a wider market has opened and is being exploited by many holiday firms.
Development In Technology
- Many people now book holidays online which is an easier and quicker process than going to a travel agency
- Many customers use a company called Teletext to book holidays at home
- Most airlines have recognised this so you can also print tickets out at home
Political Reasons For Growth In Tourism
- Relaxation of borders
- Government policies
Relaxation Of Borders
Travelling has become easy in Europe due to the EU, resulting in relaxed borders with little or no border control and there is also the common currency in several countries - Euros. Many tourists visit bordering countries for weekend trips / short city breaks as there is no border control or visa required.
Political policies
Countries such as China and East Germany used to be communist countries, meaning they did not welcome tourists. few countries still are communist today making it easier to travel. However some countries do require visas for entry. North Korea still doesn't welcome tourists due to national security.
Economic Reasons For Growth In Tourism
- Greater Affluence
- Currency exchange rates
- Transport technology
- Minimum wage
Greater Affluence
- The income of people living in HICs and MICs has increased substantially over the last few years
- The average annual wage in 2008 was £23,000, meaning more people have a larger disposable income which can be spent on tourism
Currency Exchange Rates
- Fluctuating currency of holiday destinations can affect the number of tourists
- I.E in 2007 the exchange rate was $2 to £1, so the US saw lots of tourists from the UK
Transport Technology
- Motorways allow travellers to reach their holiday destinations more quickly, saving time and extra expenses
- Aircraft also can carry a lot more passengers
- A rise in budget airlines such as Ryan Air has made air travel much cheaper and tourists are able to make several short trips every year- resulting in a rise in popularity of short city breaks.
Minimum Wage
The minimum wage has increased by 59% since 1988, allowing low paid workers to go on holiday due to the rise in their income.
Butler's Model Stages
- Exploration
- Involvement
- Development
- Consolidation
- Stagnation
- Decline or
- Rejuvenation
- Host community welcomes a small number of tourists as a source of a small amount of income
- Low numbers means the area and environment is relatively unchanged
- Locals profit from tourism but do not rely on it
- Tourists numbers begin to increase slightly
- Locals begin to develop services for the tourists and events are put on for them
- Area relatively untouched
- Tourist numbers steadily increase
- Locals promote the area as a tourist destination and package holidays may be introduced
- The main reason for tourism is still it's natural beauty, but it begins to be recognised as a tourist destination
- Attractions begin to be built
- Tourist numbers reach its peak, not increasing as quickly as they were before
- Many locals are employed in tourist industry and the area is relying on tourism as a main source of income
- However, locals begin to resent tourists due to the negative impact on the environment
- Environment experiences negative impacts of tourists
- Many facilities have been developed and transport routes continue to improve
- Tourist number are steadily declining
- Locals really resent tourists
- Visual pollution, obvious environmental damage, facilities decline as well which leads to drop in the number of tourists
- Tourist number have declined dramatically
- Facilities are ver run down
- Clear negative environmental effects
- Most businesses decline, but some are re-branched or renovated
- Significant investment take place
- Tourist numbers slowly increase, but are still low
How To Be A Sustainable Tourist
- Get rid of unnecessary packaging
- Dress appropriately,
- Respect local traditions
- Stay in eco-friendly accommodation
- Avoid all forms of animal abuses
- Use public transport
- Don't waste energy
Principles of Eco- Tourism
- Contribute to conservation efforts
- Employ local people and contribute financially to the local community
- Cooperate with locals to manage the natural area
- Provide a positive experience for the visitors and hosts
- Educate visitors on the environment and the culture
- Minimise the negative effects of tourism
Positive Effects Of Tourism
- Locals gain employment
- Local economy benefits
- Facilities begin to improve
- Better infrastructure
Negative Effects Of Tourism
- Local's feel uncomfortable, like they're in a zoo
- Money goes to foreign firms
- Locals resent tourists
- Natural beauty destroyed
- Overcrowding
0 Noise/air pollution
- Loss of culture
- Locals make decisions
- Tourists don't litter
- Tourists indulge in local traditions/culture
- Ensure money goes to locals
- Protect wildlife
- Stay/go to locally owned restaurants or hotels