Exam 3 Soc. Part 3
Terms in this set (57)
refers to biological characteristics that
distinguish males from females.
refers to social characteristics a
society considers proper for males and females.
Sex is usually a ___________ variable (male/female); gender as a variable ranges from extremely masculine to extremely feminine.
Some argue that ____________________ _______________ cause
men to be aggressive and domineering, and
women to be comforting and nurturing.
1. A medical accident led to a young boy being reassigned to the female sex.
2. The link between testosterone and aggression.
Two examples support the idea that biology
The ______________ assigned to an infant has a
major influence on the socialization of
are (generally) socialized to be
competitive and independent.
are (generally) socialized to be
nurturing and interdependent.
_______________ ____________________________channels behavior by nudging boys and girls in separate
Gender socialization begins seconds after birth: applying a blue or pink label to a newborn does more than differentiate its sex; it symbolizes a lifelong process of ____________ _________________________.
The main agents of socialization (family,
mass media, schools) greatly define ____________ __________: the behaviors and attitudes
considered appropriate for one's sex.
~Daughters were kept closer than sons.
~Daughters were touched more than sons.
~Daughters were spoken to more than sons.
Goldberg and Lewis (1969) observed
mothers and their 6 month old infants
and discovered the following:
~Girls stayed closer to their mothers during play.
~Girls returned more often to their mother
~When a barrier was placed between child and
mother, girls cried but boys climbed over.
A year later, the same mothers and
children were observed. The following
~Mothers unconsciously reward daughters
for being passive and dependent.
~Mothers unconsciously reward sons for
being active and independent.
Goldberg and Lewis concluded the
Gender roles are ______________ and define most of our interactions with others.
Barrie Thorne studied gender meanings
among elementary school children,
finding that gender identity is _______________ ____________________in the way boys and girls
tease, gossip, and play at school.
Thorne coined the term _____________________, which represents the way contact between males
and females strengthens each group's sense of
Thorne believed people seek access to or avoid
particular activities depending on how they are
~Boys and girls separate themselves by
sex; each sex develops unique norms.
~Boys and girls often have opposite value systems and standards for behavior.
Patricia and Peter Adler (1998)
discovered how boys and girls socialize themselves differently at school:
An example of _____________ ___________________________ at school: sex and popularity
For boys, athletic ability, coolness, and
toughness is valued.
▪ Doing poorly academically increases popularity.
For girls, family background, physical
appearance, and the ability to attract popular
boys is valued.
▪ Doing poorly academically decreases popularity.
_____________ are powerful socializing agents regarding gender. Boys often learn that masculinity is
related to achievement in ____________.
_________ _____________ tends to blend sexuality and sports much more for women than men.
Many of the top female sports stars are presented as sex symbols in advertising;
such images can have a lasting effect on gender socialization.
Michael Messner's research shows that
because sports involve instrumental (goal oriented) tasks, they influence boys to develop ______________________
(relationships based on what one can get out of them).
T or F?
Boys relate instrumentally to girls.
Girls are socialized to construct relationships
around _______________ rather than instrumental goals.
~Women evaluate morality in terms of personal
~Men evaluate morality in terms of abstract
principles that define right and wrong.
Carol Gilligan questioned Kohlberg's
assessment of morality as universal. Her
(controversial) findings revealed that generally...
Men and women have different goals
Men tend to exert control, maintain
independence, and enhance their status.
▪ Men are more likely to engage in conversational
Women seek to establish and maintain
▪ Women are more likely to engage in conversational
Zimmerman and West (1975)
researched _______________________ ________________ in
Interruptions are ______________ ______________________ in same sex pairs (man talking to man, woman talking
to woman), but in mixed sex pairs men are more likely to interrupt a woman.
Result: Men are more dominant in
Women are generally more likely to use ______ _________________ (statements that are
between an assertion and a question).
______________ ______________ affects the use of tag questions
Women tend to use more _____________ in
their conversations (men use fewer
"Maybe this is a good restaurant."
"I guess I'll have the halibut."
"Perhaps we should leave."
Women tend to use more _________________
in their conversations (men use fewer
"This necklace is really pretty!"
"This cake is so yummy."
is small vocal
comments a listener makes while a
speaker is talking.
are qualifying statements
used to protect one's self-concept in situations where one does not want
to look bad. Women tend to use these more than men:
▪ "I may be wrong, but that was a great movie."
▪ "Others may disagree, but I think he is a good
~Men signal dominance through staring,
pointing, walking ahead of women they
~Women are more likely to smile, lower their gaze, move out of a man's way
Gender differences in non-verbal
Non-verbal communication is more a function of __________ than gender, in the pure sense
refers to men's and
women's unequal access to power, prestige,
Gender is a _____________ _____________, and is a salient
characteristic in all aspects of social life.
The sociological significance of gender is that it
is a major means by which society ___________ its
members; it sorts men and women into different life experiences.
1. Radical feminism aimed to reform all
2. Conservative feminism concentrated on
allowing women to vote.
Feminist movements of the past had
Wages; working conditions
As more women gained an education and began to work outside the home, they compared their _________ and _____________ ____________________ to those of men.
1. To seek equality for women in all areas of social
2. To increase opportunities and choices for women.
3. To eliminate gender stratification.
4. To end sexual violence.
5. To promote sexual freedom.
The following are goals that define
contemporary feminist movements:
1. Liberal feminism-seek basic gender equalities (such as equal pay in the workplace, equal rights), while still
respecting role differentiation for women
2. Radical feminism-seek to completely restructure society, with equal treatment for women sought in every facet of social life; holds the opinion that in order to realize equality gender roles and the social order must be redefined.
3. Socialist (Marxist) feminism-seek gender equality by applying
the ideas of Karl Marx to the family and gender relations; Similar to the exploitation of the proletariat
by the bourgeoisie, gender discrimination is
seen as a product of capitalism and the
conflicting nature of the family.
Today there are three main types of
_______________________ _____________________________theory suggests that
traditional sex roles emerged in hunting
and gathering societies where they
promoted the efficient functioning of the family.
Each sex played a role that complemented the
role played by the other, with men taking the
instrumental role and women the expressive role.
1. It ignores the fact that many women have had
to work outside the home due to necessity.
2. It ignores the personal strains and social costs
produced by rigid gender roles.
3. It legitimizes the status quo.
Critics of the functionalist explanation for
gender differences cite the following:
The ______________ ____________________ explains
contemporary sex roles in terms of
dominance, subordination, and sexism,
often focusing on economic inequality
between the sexes.
Gender is constructed as an _____________________ ________________ , with
males maintaining a dominant position by defining
masculinity in terms of superior traits and femininity
in terms of weakness or frailty.
1. It casts conventional families as morally evil.
2. It minimizes the extent to which people live
happily in families.
3. It argues, perhaps falsely, that capitalism
stands at the root of gender stratification.
Critics of the conflict explanation for gender differences cite the following:
___________________ _____________________________theory focuses on
how gender meanings emerge during face to-face
interactions in everyday life.
Gender is constructed in each encounter,
where power differences are negotiated in
terms of visible status characteristics.
With less power, women are expected to be
more deferential, and show respect for others
of higher social position (i.e. men).
1. It ignores greater social structures that define
society, and thus influence social interactions.
2. It focuses too much on cooperation and ignores
conflict that defines gender roles.
Critics of the symbolic interactionist
explanation for gender differences cite the
In the U.S. women working is now the
_______ rather than the exception.
T or F?
Women continue to enter a narrow range of
occupations, with almost half in clerical or
The greater a job's income and prestige, the
more likely it is that the position will be held by
Arlie Hochschild noted a significant
difference between men and women:
women work a _______________ _________. Women's entry into the labor market has not substantially reduced their involvement in
housework, as husbands have resisted increasing
their participation in these tasks. Therefore, women work one ________ during the day, then work another after coming home (cooking, cleaning).
The average female full-time worker
earns ____ cents for every dollar earned
by a male full-time employee.
1. Men and women often work in different
kinds of jobs (with men's jobs paying far
2. Women are given a greater responsibility for family and childcare tasks, which
means that women go in and out of the labor force more often than men.
3. Discrimination of women by men has greatly limited opportunities for women.
Three reasons for this pay gap: