Upgrade to remove ads
OCR History B: Modern World History Germany 1918-45
Key words from OCR History B: Modern World History Depth study of Weimar/Nazi Germany from 1918 - 1945. Words from http://www.johndclare.net/Smartass_Germany.htm
Terms in this set (71)
The title of the monarch of Germany (derived from the Roman word 'Caesar'). The last ... of Germany was Wilhelm II (1859 - 1941), who in 1918 fled to the village of Doom in the Netherlands after Germany's defeat and his abdication.
A country NOT ruled by a monarch. The 'Weimar ...' in Germany (1919-1933) took its name from the town where in February 1919 a constituent assembly met to draw up a democratic constitution.
The German Parliament - also the name for the building. Under the Weimar republic the ... was elected by all men and women over the age of 20 - a far more democratic government than Britain, where only women over the age for 30 were allowed to vote.
the name given by the right-wing and nationalist parties in Germany to the government ministers who made the Armistice and then signed the Treaty of Versailles. Also called Volksverräter ('People-traitors').
Literally, 'Dagger-blow legend' - the belief (invented by general Hindenburg in 1919) of the right-wing politicians that the Germany Army had only lost the First World War because it had been 'stabbed in the back' by the 'November criminals' - the politicians who had signed the Armistice.
Friedrich ...: the first president of the Weimar Republic. He had started life as a saddler, but had formed a saddlers' Trade Union, and got involved in politics. He was a moderate Socialist (SPD).
'Body of fundamental laws of a state, laying down the system of government and defining the relations of the legislature, executive, and judiciary to each other and to the citizens.' The... of the Weimar Republic was a representative democracy with an elected president, and the rights of the citizens defined by a Bill of Rights guaranteeing equality before the law and political and religious freedom.
The first great flaw in the Weimar Constitution - it gave the President the right to make laws by decree in an emergency. Since the voting system of proportional voting never gave any Weimar government a sufficient majority to pass the laws it wanted, the President ruled increasingly by decree to pass ANY law - thus abusing the system as it was intended. It was this flaw in the Constitution that gave Hitler the opportunity to seize power after 1933.
A system of voting that does not - as we have in Britain today - elect representatives for individual 'constituencies' by a 'first past the post' system, but where people in a large region vote for the PARTY they want, and then a number of representatives are returned to the parliament in proportion to the number of votes cast for each party. Although it sounds much fairer, in fact, the system of ... in the Weimar republic led to a succession of weak, coalition governments, where no one party was ever big enough to have a majority. Thus, after 14 years of political impotence, many moderate politicians were HAPPY to support Hitler, who offered at least a decisive government.
General Hans von..., the right-wing leader of the army. He was a problem to the Weimar government in that he could not be relied upon to put down right wing rebellions and troublemakers. On the other hand, he was useful to the government because he was very keen to put down Communist rebellions.
Group of Communists who - led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht, rebelled in Berlin in Jan 1919. They were brutally put down by the army and the Freikorps.
Bands of soldiers who, returning from the war, did not disband, but formed small paramilitary units (= private armies). Two ... units were called 'the steel helmet' and 'the emergency police'. Usually very right-wing, and implacably hostile to the Weimar government (whom they called the 'November Criminals'), they were a source of terrorism and intimidation. On the other hand, they were useful to the government because they were very keen to put down Communist rebellions.
Matthais ...: German politician. Starting in life as a journalist, he started a Christian Trade Union in Mainz, and after 1903 was a Reichstag delegate for the Catholic 'Centre Party'. In 1918 he was the first government minister to sign the Armistice, and in February 1919 became the minister with special responsibility for the Armistice. In June 1919 he became Finance Minister in the Weimar Government. When he was attacked in the press by the journalist Karl Helferrich ('away with ...'), Erzberger took Helferrich to court, but the case created such hostility towards himself that he was forced to resign. On 26 August 1921, ... was shot by two former naval officers who had joined the Freikorps.
Walther...: Son of a Jewish businessman, ... trained as a mechanical engineer and became chairman of the electrics firm AEG. During the First World War he worked for the government as head of the Raw Materials Department (KRA). As economic expert and a member of the SDP he did not agree with the Versailles Treaty, but in 1922 he agreed to join the government as minister of foreign affairs. In April, however, he made the Rapallo Treaty with the Soviet Union, for which on 24 June 1922 he was shot by two young officers, who belonged to a right-wing extremist group called the 'organization Consul'.
The German Social Democratic Party, which was formed in 1875, but which soon became the biggest party in Germany. It advocated a mixture of Marxist and other more moderate left-wing beliefs. After 1919, the more moderate members of the party agreed to join the Weimar Government, although they lost the support of the more left-wing party members when the government used the army to put down Communist rebellions. Nevertheless, the Social Democratic Party continued to be the largest party in the Reichstag until July 1932 when the Nazis won 230 seats to the SDP's 133.
The main industrial area of Germany, alongside the River Rhine in the west of the country. This was the area France invaded in 1923 when it wanted to collect reparations payments from Germany.
When prices rise out of control by many 100%
A German word meaning a violent take-over of power/ a rebellion.
a. In its broadest sense, the '...' was any paramilitary group in Germany which opposed the government and the Treaty of Versailles - thus it included such as the Nazi SA, and Freikorps units such as 'the steel helmet' and 'the emergency police'. 'Black' soldiers were any ex-soldiers involved in Freikorps.
b. In a stricter sense, '...' refers to a specific Freikorps unit - amolunting to 18,000 men - led by Major Bruno Buchrucker in the Kuestrin district of eastern Germany. At first the Weimar Army Minister denied that a 'Black Reich' existed, but on 1 October 1923 Buchrucker's ... mounted the Kuestriner Putsch. Although the putsch itself was quickly put down by Major Fedor von Bock, it caused a scandal when an investigation in 1826 revealed that funds and arms had gone to these anti-Republican groups from army sources - and that even some of the generals were involved.
The German Communist party. They wanted to bring in a Soviet-style Communist state in Germany. After the failure of the Spartacist revolt, in 1919, only 22 Communists were elected to the Reichstag, but the number of deputies increased during periods of economic problem. This is important because it is sometimes asserted that working class people voted Nazi because of the Depression; this is not true - working class people voted Communist (thus 101 Communist deputies were elected in November 1932, and 88 even in March 1933). It was the votes of MIDDLE CLASS people during the Depression which brought the Nazis to power.
An area in central Germany where the Communists took power and set up a 'republican proletarian' government during the economic disaster of hyperinflation in 1923. The government was short-lived, and collapsed when Stresemann ordered it to disband.
Dr Wolfgang ... was a right-wing journalist who on 13th March 1920, led a rebellion against the Treaty of Versailles with the help of General Luttwitz and his Freikorps unit. It took over Berlin and tried to bring back the Kaiser, but collapsed on 17th March when the workers of Berlin went on a general strike.
Gustav ... had been a strong nationalist after 1919, but the crisis of 1923 convinced him to take a more moderate stance. He established political stability by organising the 'Great Coalition' of the SPD, the Centre Party and his own 'German People's Party' (DVP). He brought economic stability by calling off the 1923 Ruhr strike, introducing the new Rentenmark and negotiating the Dawes Plan with America. He introduced reforms to make life better for the working classes - including Labour Exchanges (1927), unemployment pay and 3 million new houses were built. He also brought Germany back into world politics - he started to pay reparations again, signed the Locarno Treaty of 1925 (agreeing to the loss of Alsace-Lorraine) and negotiated Germany's admission to the League of Nations in 1926 - it was this last that made him so hated by right-wing politicians.
Charles Gates ... was an American politician who became president of the League of Nations Reparations Commission in 1923. Faced by the economic collapse of Germany, he negotiated the Dawes Plan with Stresemann. The Plan organised a scale of annual payments taken from German customs dues, starting at 1bn marks and rising to 2.5bn, and also agreed the reorganisation of the German State Bank. The main part of the plan was a loan of $200 million. The Dawes Plan got the German economy going again, but right-wing politicians like Hitler hated it because it agreed to pay reparations and gave foreign banks control over the German economy.
... Pact: a number of diplomatic agreements made in Locarno, Switzerland, in October 1925 (and formally signed in London in December 1925). The agreements - signed by Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, and Germany - guaranteed Germany's existing frontiers with France and Belgium (accepting that Alsace Lorraine was part of France). The ... Pact was the agreement that secured Germany's acceptance into the League of Nations in 1926.
One of the ways Stresemann saved the Weimar republic in 1923 was by organising the '...' of the pro-democracy parties - the SPD, the Centre Party, the German Democratic Party (DDP) and his own 'German People's Party' (DVP). This created a government strong enough to pass the laws which re-established stability. Actually, the ... only lasted 2 months before it fell apart, and the government returned to the instability of the past. Also, in 1924, Stresemann brought in the right-wing German National People's Party (DNVP), which 'let in' right-wing politicians into the government.
A German School of Art and Design, formed by the German architect Walter Gropius in 1919, which tried to fuse the hitherto separate media of 'art' and 'craft'. Its most famous teacher was Paul Klee. Students at the ... School of Art studied a stressing the links between architecture and such crafts as stained glass, mural decoration, metalwork, carpentry, weaving, pottery, typography, and graphics, and fostering an understanding of materials. The ... school led to significant developments in architecture. The Nazis disapproved of the movement, and closed it down in 1933.
Paul ...: German artist who taught at the Bauhaus school. ... did not produce representational art - he believed that the artist transformed the world into paintings in much the same way as the soil produces plants. His pictures were much influenced by the art of children and the mentally ill.
German singer who in 1930 acted in the film Der Blaue Engel (The Blue Angel). She was famous for her husky, sexy voice, and her most famous song is perhaps 'Falling in love again'. She disapproved of the Nazis, and moved to Hollywood.
A German artist who fought in the First World War. He was a member of the 'New Objectivity' group of German painters, who depicted their subjects in a harsh, 'realist' way. Many of his paintings depicted the horror of the First World War. Because of this, in 1933the Nazis dismissed him from his teaching post at Dresden Art academy, and branded him a 'decadent'. It is worth looking him up on Google and comparing his paintings with those of approved Nazi artists such as Adolf Wissel.
The American Stock Exchange. The collapse of share prices in October 1929 ('the ... Crash') and the economic crisis this caused in America, led to the recalling of Dawes loans to Germany, which caused the Great Depression and led to the growth in Nazi fortunes after 1930.
Anton ...: the original founder of the German Workers' Party (1919), which Hitler took over and formed into the Nazi Party.
The proper name for the Nazi Party was the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party) or .... The word Nationalsozialistische sums up its attempted appeal both to the right-wing nationalists, but also to the more left-wing socialists.
Literally, 'living space'. In 1924, Hitler expounded in Mein Kampf his theory that the growing, superior German race had the right to seek extra land and resources in eastern Europe, at the expense of the inferior Slavic races, who would be the Germans' slave workforce.
The ownership/running of industry (especially utilities such as electricity, telephone, railways etc) by the state. In its early days, the Nazi Party incorporated a number of left-wing quasi-socialist ideas into its philosophy, including the right to a job and a decent standard of living, improvements in pension, sharing the profits of public companies and war profiteers, and ... of public industries such as electricity and water.
Literally, 'Storm section'. Also known as the 'brownshirts'. Starting as stewards at Nazi meetings, the SA grew up into the paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. Their leader was Ernst Röhm. The SA failed in the Munich Putsch of 1923, but Hitler kept them on after 1923 to defend Nazi meetings against Communist attacks, and to break up meetings of rival parties. When he had come to power, however, they were an embarrassment, and Hitler had all the SA's leaders murdered 30 June 1933 (the 'Night of the Long Knives') and the organization was disbanded.
A Nazi artist (real name was Hans Schweitzer) who designed many Nazi propaganda posters.
Hjalmar ..., Head of the Reichsbank, who organised fund-raising parties for Hitler. After Hitler came to power, in 1933 Hitler put him in charge of the economy as Minister of Economics; under his control, Germany restored her favourable balance of trade (ie Germany exported more then it imported). Later, however, he was dismissed when he tried to stop Hitler spending so much on rearmament and questioned Hitler's plans for 'Autarky'. Hitler replaced him with Goering, after which the German economy overheated; there is a theory that Hitler HAD to go to war in 1939 to prevent Germany going into a hyperinflationary economic crisis.
Reinhard ... of the Schroeder Bank was another major financier of the Nazis. It was ... who, on Jan. 3, 1933, met Hitler and asked him to form a government
Irenee du Pont
... (head of General Motors) was one of a number of Americans - others were Henry Ford of Ford Motors, and George Bush of the American shipping and railway company WA Harriman and Co) - who poured money into the Nazis because they thought that Hitler was a way to stop the advance of Russian Communism.
Denoted Z or ZP. The German Catholic Centre Party. Its ambivalence towards the Nazis was one of the main factors in Hitler's rise to power.
Heinrich ...: Centre Party politicians, who became Chancellor of Germany during the Great Depression of 1930-32. The Centre Party did not have a majority, and he was forced to govern most of the time by Presidential decree under Article 48. ... did not have a clue how to end the depression, choosing instead to propose a law which would INCREASE taxes, CUT unemployment pay, and CUT the wages of civil servants and teachers (in fact, exactly the way to make the depression worse). The outcry this law created caused the fall of his government and the political crisis which led eventually to the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933.
Franz von ...: Right-wing German politicians whom became Chancellor in 1932. Unable to create a coalition which could control the Reichstag - and therefore forced to rule by Presidential decree under Article 48 - it was ... who proposed to Hindenburg the deal to bring Hitler into the government in January 1933. By this agreement, ... became Vice-Chancellor. Papen thought he could control Hitler, but it was, in fact,...who became a loyal follower of Hitler - being made envoy to Austria 1934-38 and ambassador to Turkey 1939-44.
Paul von ...: leading German general during the First World War, it was Hindenburg who invented the 'Dolchstosslegende' in 1919 as an attempt to avoid responsibility for Germany's defeat. He became President in 1925. He was right-wing in his politics - it was ..., in 1926, who denied the war guilt clause. Unable to create a government which commanded a majority during the 1929-32 depression, it was Hindeburg who, with Papen, offered Hitler the post of Chancellor. Although he despised Hitler, he approved of his right-wing policies, and was happy for him to take dictatorial power after 1933.
Marinus van der ... was beheaded on 10th January, 1934 for setting fire to the Reichstag building. He was a poor Dutch bricklayer. When a fire broke out in his local factory, he offered to confess to arson as long as no one else was accused. He was invalided after an industrial accident to his eyes in 1925 and never worked again - he had to live on a small invalidity pension. In 1926 ...joined the Dutch Communist Party (KPH) and organised demonstrations and spoke at protest meetings; he was not a half-wit as is sometimes claimed. He said he wanted to live in the Soviet Union, but could not afford to go there and instead spent time visiting Germany and Poland. In 1931 in Germany he spent 10 days in jail for begging. In February 1933 he went back to Germany to oppose the Nazis, openly advocating active resistance. On 27 February - after two attempts at arson two days earlier - ... was found in the burning Reichstag building; he admitted starting the fire. As well as ..., four communists with setting fire to the Reichstag; only ... was found guilty. Adolf Hitler was furious when the rest of the defendants were acquitted and in future all treason cases were held in a new 'People's Court' of NSDAP members.
Properly called the Decree of the Reich President for the protection of people and state, this was issued by President Hindenburg (though it was really Hitler who wrote the decree) under Article 48 of the constitution, on 28 February 1933, the day after the Reichstag fire. It abolished the Bill of Rights and gave the Chancellor the right to restrict people's personal freedom, freedom of speech, including the freedom of the press, the freedom to organize and assemble, the privacy of letters, mail, telegraphs and telephones, and order searches and confiscations. It was this decree that gave Hitler the right to arrest many Communists before the March elections, and before the Enabling Act was discussed by the Reichstag.
The Act which we call the ... was actually called the Law to remedy the need of the people and the country. Passed on 23 March 1933 (after all the Communist deputies had been put into prison), it gave the Reich government the right to make laws without going to the Reichstag - even if they were against the Constitution - and to make treaties without asking the Reichstag to ratify them.
A contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: literally, 'secret state police'. The ... was Germany's secret police, formed in 1933, and controlled by the SS leader Heinrich Himmler after 1934. There was no appeal against ... authority and it had absolute power to deal with acts or individuals it considered against the national interest. It became one of the most feared and brutal elements of the Nazi regime.
On 2 May 1933, Hitler banned all trade unions, and ordered the SA to arrest all the trade unions leaders who had not fled the country. Instead, he set up the Deutschen Arbeitsfront (German Labour Front), run by Dr Robert Ley. This was supposed to look after the workers' interest - it did set up things like the KdF programme - but really it was used to keep the workers under control for Hitler's rich industrialist backers. Wages fell overall in Hitler's German, and workers were not allowed to strike.
... was the codeword for the Night of the Long Knives, 30 June 1934, when Hitler ordered the SS to kill more than 400 SA men.
Ernst ... was a loyal, long-term supporter of Hitler. He took part in the Munich Putsch, and became leader of the SA. After Hitler took power in 1933, however, relations between the two became strained - ... wanted the SA to take over the position of the Army, with himself as leader, and he also stated that he wanted a 'Second revolution'. Many of the SA were working class, and they believed that the Nazis' next step should be to destroy the rich and bring in a Socialist-type revolution. This, of course, was the last thing Hitler wanted. ... (and many SA men) were also homosexual, and some historians suggest that the Night of the Long Knives was a 'gay Kristalnacht'. A meeting of SA leaders was fixed for 30th June and Hitler had promised to attend. The night before the meeting, just before 7am, Hitler and a number of SS men marched into the village inn near Munich where the SA leaders were sleeping, then arrested and executed them. ... himself was shot in his prison cell after he refused to commit suicide. ... coined the famous phrase: 'All revolutions devour their own children', which turned out to be prophetic.
Literally, 'leader'. The title adopted by Hitler as leader of the Nazi Party, and later - when Hindenburg died - as leader of Germany. As ..., Hitler united the roles of President, Chancellor and head of the Army.
Literally, 'protective squadron': the SS - a Nazi elite corps, Hitler's private bodyguard, established in 1925 under Himmler. They were conditioned to see themselves as 'agents of light'. At its height it had half a million members. Some of them - the Waffen SS - were army units. The special SS Death's Head Units ran the concentration camps.
Death's Head Units
The SS units detailed to run the concentration camps. They were infamous for their cruelty and atrocities.
Josef ...: Minister of Propaganda from 1933. Nicknames 'the poison dwarf', he indoctrinated germans to love Hitler, hate Communists and Jews, and welcome war -famous ... quote sinclude: 'It is the absolute right of the State to supervise the formation of public opinion', 'We have made the Reich by propaganda' and 'Guns not butter'. He also built up supporters in other countries, and masterminded Hitler's 'war of nerves' foreign policy in 1933-1939.
To brainwash by any method. The young are the easiest to brainwash, which is why the Nazis were so concerned to control the school curriculum, and why they placed such emphasis on the HJ. Usually, ... is done covertly. In the Hitler Youth, however, ... was used to mean the factual learning that HJ members did about subjects such as 'the life of the Fuhrer', 'the lost territories' and 'the five flag oaths'.
A collection of 17 short stories by the Nazi writer Ernst Hiemer, with pictures by the Nazi artist Fips. The purpose of the stories was to indoctrinate (brainwash) young German children to despise and hate the Jews. In the stories, it is young German children who are the heroes. Sometimes they are able to help and support their parents by criticising the Jews. In the stories, Jewish people are always presented as evil, dirty and treacherous; by contrast, the children in the stories please their parents and teachers by hating the Jews. The book took its title from the opening story, which compared the Jews to poisonous mushrooms in a forest; they may not look very different from the others, but they have the power to destroy and must be destroyed
On the night of 9-10 November 1938, after Herschel Grynszpan, a 17-year-old Jew living in Paris, had shot and killed von Rath, a member of the German Embassy staff. The Gestapo were ordered to destroy Jewish property and businesses, and to arrest 20-30,000 Jews. On November 9, the Gestapo whipped up the mob to help SA, SS and Hitler Youth beat and murder Jews, and wreck their homes. SS leader Reinhard Heydrich reported 7500 businesses destroyed, 267 synagogues burned (with 177 totally destroyed) and 91 Jews killed. The night got its name for the sparkling 'crystals' of broken glass in the street the morning from the broken windows of Jewish shops.
1942: the meeting which agreed the 'final solution' to the 'Jewish question' - all Jews would be gassed in death camps.
... is the Hebrew word for the Holocaust - the attempt by the Nazis at the genocide of the Jewish race. The word means a calamity or catastrophe where God is not present. It was the word used by Jews in the 1940s to describe what was happening, and it is the word that Jewish people today prefer to use. The word Holocaust is a bible word meaning a 'sacrifice-by-fire'. Jewish people hate it; it is inappropriate, because a holocaust was an offering to God, and it is inappropriate to apply it to the Nazi genocide, which was godless.
The motorways built - invented - by Hitler under the public works programme. Not only did it help unemployment by providing work immediately, but it stimulated the economy in general by improving g transport and communications.
Reicharbeitsdeinst: The Reich Labour Service, set up by the Nazis to reduce unemployment. It organized public works like the autobahns and public building schemes (Government spending rose, 1932-38 from about 5 billion to 30 billion marks.). In 1935, Hitler made it compulsory for 18-25 year-old German men to do six months in the ..., although the pay was poor and some young men resented it, generally it was regarded as a rewarding experience. Unemployment fell from nearly 6 million to virtually nothing.
Reich Food Estate
By the 1933 Farm Law, farmers were assured of sales and given subsidies. The government kept food prices at the 1928 level. But farmers were organised into the ... - led by Walther Darré, the Reich Peasant Leader - and strictly controlled (e.g., one rule stated that hens must lay 65 eggs a year).
The Nazis believed in Schönheit der Arbeit ('the beauty of labour'). Through the DAF they made people work hard, but then they encouraged them to feel proud of their achievement. The Kraft durch Freude ('Strength through joy') movement was how they rewarded people for the hard work they had done. The government put 5 billion RM into the scheme: worker were given day trips, trips to the cinema or theatre, or (rarely) cheap holidays. In Berlin, 1933-38, the ... sponsored 134,000 events for 32 million people (2 million went on cruises & weekend trips, and 11 million on theatre trips). It was under the ... initiative that Hitler made his promise that every German family would ultimately own a Volkswagen car. The Nazis also made sure that every German had a radio, but this was more for propaganda than a reward for working hard.
Hitler Jugend: the Hitler Youth. A law of 1936 merged all German Youth Movements into the 'Hitler Youth Movement'. Boys aged 10-14 went to the Deutsches Jungvolk (Young Germans), and then - aged 14-18 - into the Hitler Jugend. Its members did sports, military training and were indoctrinated about Hitler and Nazism.
Bund Deutscher Mädel: the League of German Maidens. By the law of 1936, girls aged 10-14 went to the Jung Mädel, passing aged 14-18 into the ... Girls did cleaning, craftwork, and learned about Hitler and how to be good Nazi partners of Aryan warrior-me.
Literally, 'bringing together'. In a general sense, it means the Nazi process of taking every area of life in Germany and forcing it into line with Nazi ideology. This included taking control of the political system, the trade unions and the Church, uniting all youth movements into the HJ, but also affecting the way everyone thought by means of propaganda.
More specifically, ... refers to the corpus of laws which the Nazis passed to give them control of the political system - chief among which were the Reichstag Fire decree, the Enabling Act, the acts banning trade unions and opposition parties, the law ratifying Hitler's actions on the Night of the Long Kinives, and the law making Hitler Führer.
Precisely, there were two specific Gleichschaltungsgesetz (... laws): the first (31 March 1933) gave the local state governments the same powers as the Enabling Act gave Hitler, and the second (7 April 1933) put a Nazi Reichsstatthalter (proconsul) in charge of every state.
A (supposed) parent race believed to have come from central Asia in the 2nd century BC, and which - according to Nazi philosophy - was the pure blood line of the German people (which had been contaminated by inter breeding with other races). The term derives from Sanskrit arya, originally a name for the highest (Brahmans) caste, and later meaning 'of noble family'. The Nazis held that the ... race represented the highest attainment of evolution. Full citizens rights were granted only to people could trace their 'pure ...' descent back for at least 100 years - back to 1750, if you wanted to be in the SS. The dream of Himmler -leader of the SS - was of white-skinned, blue- eyed, fair-haired, or pure `Nordic´ race. Ideal .'..' boys and girls were sent to camps to breed, like animals, and - in the countries Hitler conquered - selective breeding programmes were set up to purify the blood of the people (the so-called lebensborn). Nazi theories about the ... race also gave them the theoretical justification to persecuted the Jews.
The generic name for the unofficial youth groups - with names such as the Navajos and the Roving Dudes - who rebelled against the HJ movement. They hung round, drinking alcohol, dancing and listening to jazz (which was banned music). In Cologne in 1944 a group of ... - which had been helping army deserters - killed the local Gestapo chief. The Nazis rounded up the group's leaders and publicly hanged 12 of them.
Dietrich ...: a German Protestant theologian who opposed Nazism. During the war he got involved in a plot to kill Hitler, but was discovered, arrested and executed by the Nazis in Flossenburg concentration camp.
Literally, 'sub-humans'. The word applied by the Nazis to a whole range of races (eg Jews, Gypsies, Blacks and the Slavs) as well as people with physical 'defects' (eg physically disabled, deaf, blind) or of whom they disapproved (eg beggars, homosexuals). These people they persecuted, sterilised, put to death or used for medical experiments.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
GERMANY (1918-1945): KEY FIGURES - OCR GCSE WORLD…
Medicine through time
The Yalta Conference vs The Potsdam Conference (OC…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP EURO- The Rise of Fascism and Authoritarianism
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Travelling in Russia Role-play
Weather and Holidays
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Basic Reporting Final
Macro unit 1
Med Term, Final Exam Part 2