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Chapter 1

Rene Decartes

interactive dualism

interactive dualism

Rene Decartes
the idea that mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions and other conscious experiences


wrote De Anima, regarded as the first systematic treatise on psychology

nature vs nurture

heredity versus environmental factors in aspects of behavior


branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms

Wilhelm Wundt

founder of psychology
opened first laboratory of psychological research

Wilhelm Wundt

defined psychology as the study of consciousness and emphasized the use of experimental methods to study and measure consciousness

Edward Titchener



Edward Titchener
First major school of thought in psychology - held that even our most complex conscious experienced could be broken down into elemental structure, or component parts, used Introspection to identify these structures
first school of thought to die out

William James

Instrumental in establishing psychology in United States

Wilhelm Wundt

opened first laboratory of psychology

G. Stanley Hall

student of William James
received 1st PhD in psychology in the US

G Stanley Hall

founded American Psychological Association

Mary Witton Calkins

1st female president of American Psychological Association

Mary Witton Calkins

student of William James at Harvard
Harvard refused to award her PhD in psychology, even though she had completed the requirements

Margaret Floy Washburn

student of Edward Titchener at Cornell
1st American woman to acquire PhD in psychology

Margaret Floy Washburn

2nd female president of the American Psychological Association

Sigmund Freud



Sigmund Freud
emphasized role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality

John Watson



John Watson
B.F. Skinner
school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning
rejected Structuralism, Functionalism and Psychoanalysis

B.F. Skinner

reinforced Watson's beliefs - psychology should be restricted to studying outwardly observable hehaviors that could be measured and verified.

Carl Rogers

introduced Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic Psychology

Carl Rogers
emphasizes conscious experiences including an individuals potential for psychological growth and self determination, free will, importance of choice

Abraham Maslow

Humanistic Psychology
developed theory of motivation

Francis Sumner

student of Stanley Hall
first African-American to earn a PhD in psychology


early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences, how they allow people and animals to adapt to their environments
based on evolution, that things change over time
thought psychologists should focus on consciousness


the scientific study of behavior and mental processes


anything perceptible to the senses, such as a sight, sound, smell, touch or taste

Ivan Pavlov

believed he had discovered mechanism by which all behavior is learned (dog and bell)

Biological Perspective

psychological perspective that studies the physiological aspects of behavior and mental processes

Psychodynamic Perspective

psychological perspective that emphasize the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences and interpersonal relationships in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior

Humanistic Perspective

psychological perspective that focuses on the mtivation of people to grow psycholically, the influence of interpersonal relationships on self-concept and importance of choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential
Remove obstacles so ppl can develop their best self
"Be all the you can be"
(Rogers, Maslow)

Positive Psychology Perspective

psychological perspective that studies positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communites

Cognitive Perspective

psychological perspective that returns to the important role of mental processes in how people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems and think.
Attitude is everything, how you perceive something = how you react to it

Cross-Cultural Perspective

psychological perspective that studies how cultural factors influence patterns of behavior - the fact that common behaviors are not always universal
(social loafing study)

Evolutionary Perspective

the application of principles of evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena.
analyzes behavior in terms of how it increases a species chances to survive and reproduce
reflex behaviors, etc

Behavioral Perspective

studies how behavior is acquired or modified by environmental consequences
"change the environment, change the person"


the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communciated from one generation to the next


the belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures


cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group


cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual

Biological psychology

specialty area that studies relationship between psychological processes and the body's physical systems, also called physiological psychology

clinical psychology

specialty area that studies the causes, diagnosis, treament, and prevention of behavioral and emotional disorders

cognitive psychology

specialty area that investiges mental processes, including reasoning, thinking, language, perception

counseling psychology

specialty area that helps people adjust, adapt and cope with problems

educational psychology

specialty area that studies how people learn. develop instructional methods and materials used to train people

experimental psychology

specialty area that researches sensory, perceptual processes, learning, motivation and emotion. every are of psychology does this

developmental psychology

specialty area that studies the physical, social and psychological changes that occur at different stages of life

forensic psychology

specialty area that applies psychological principles to legal issues

health psychology

specialty area that focuses on role of psycholgcial factors in the development, prevention and treatment of illness.

industrial/organizational psychology

specialty area that is concerned with relationship between people and work, job analysis, personnel selection and training, productivity, job satisfaction, leadership and group behavior

personality psychology

specialty area that studies the nature of human personality, incl characteristics that make each person unique, and how to se characteristics originated and develped

rehabilitation psychology

specialty area that applies psychological knowledge to heling people with chronic and disabling health conditions adapt to their situation and attain optimal functioning

social psychology

specialty area that explores how people are affected by their social environments, conformity, obedience persuation, attraction, aggression, prejudice, etc

sports psychology

specialty area that uses psychological theory to enhance athletic motivation, performance and consistency

military psychology

specialty area that help sodiers and their famlies deal with combat stress, readjusting to civilian life, injuires, etc

school psychology

specialty area that help teachers, school administrators and parents understand how children learn and develop, counseling, assessing students,


trained in diagnosis, treatment, causes and prevention of psychological disorders
medical degree, must first attain MD or Do, then several years of specialty training in treatment of mental disorders


can hospitalize people
can order medical treatments and prescribe medication

scientific method

a set of assumptions, attitudes and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, generate evidence and draw conclusions

empirical evidence

verifiable evidence that is based on objective observation, measurement and/or experimentation


a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables, a testable prediction or question

critical thinking

the active process of minimizing preconceptions and biases while evaluating evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations for research findings or other phenomena


a factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured and verified

4 basic goals of psychology

control or influence ... behavior and mental processes

Formulate a testable hypothesis

Step 1 Scientific Process

design study and collect the data

Step 2 Scientific Process

analyze the data, draw conclusions

Step 3 Scientific Process

report the findings

Step 4 Scientific Process

operational definition

a precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured (scale of 1-10, etc)


a branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize and interpret data

statistically significant

a mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance


a statistical techniques that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends


to repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings


research methods for observing and describing behavior
answer: who, what, where and when
naturalistic observation, surveys, case studies, etc


research method used to show that one variable causes change in a second variable.
researcher deliberately varies one factor, then measures the changes produced in the second


a tentaive explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations
integrates and summarizes numerous research findings and observations on a particular topic


claim to be scientific while ignoring the basic rules of science
Magnet Therapy

naturalistic observation

"the science of people and animal watching"
the systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting

naturalistic observation

descriptive research method used when researchers want to avoid being detected by their subjects - to detect behavior patterns that exist naturally, including ones that would be inethical to create in an experiment (bullying, etc)

case studies

intensive, in-depth study of a single individual or small group of individuals to develop a complete profile

case studies

descriptive research method used to investigate rare, unusual or extreme conditions


a questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors or characteristics of a particular group


a selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied

representative sample

a selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics (race, age, sex, etc)

random selection

process in which subjects are selected from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study

correlational study

a research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other
important note: does NOT indicate causality

correlation coefficient

a numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables (from -1.00 to 1.00)

positive correlation

a finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together (the closer to +1, the more positive correlation)

negative correlation

a finding that two factors vary systematically in opposite direction, as one increases, the other decreases and vice versa

experimental method

a method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor

independent variable

the purposely manipulated variable thought to produce change in an experiment
also called treatment variable
(being told housekeeping is good exercise)

dependent variable

the variable that is observed and measured for change in an experiment
also called the outcome variable

extraneous variable

a factor of variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could affect the outcome of an experiment
also called confounding variable
(housekeeping staff might talk to each other about the experiment, solved by making entire hotel part of experimental or control groups)

experimental group or experimental condition

in an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable


a fake substance, treatment or procedure that has no known direct effects

placebo effect

any change attributed to a person's beliefs and expectations rather than an actual drug, treatment or procedure
also called expectancy effect

random assignment

the process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all particpants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study

double-blind technique

an experimental control in which neither the particpants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condtion to which the participants have been assigned

demand characteristics

in a research study, subtle cues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is exprected from the participant

practice effect

any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task

main effect

any change that can be directly attributed to the independent or treatment variable after controlling for other possible influences

single-blind study

a study in which the researchers but not the subjects, ar aware of critical information

control group

in an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions except the independent variable
the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared
(participants who were NOT informed houskeeping is healthy)

natural experiment

a study investigating the effects of a naturally occurring event on the research participants

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

an invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of a radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen or a drug

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

a noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the body's structures and tissues using electromagnetic signals generated by the body in response to magnetic fields

Funtional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

a noninvasive imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels

comparative psychology

the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the behavior of nonhuman animals

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