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General Psych - The Origins of Psychology

Chapter 1
Rene Decartes
interactive dualism
interactive dualism
Rene Decartes
the idea that mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions and other conscious experiences
wrote De Anima, regarded as the first systematic treatise on psychology
nature vs nurture
heredity versus environmental factors in aspects of behavior
branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms
Wilhelm Wundt
founder of psychology
opened first laboratory of psychological research
Wilhelm Wundt
defined psychology as the study of consciousness and emphasized the use of experimental methods to study and measure consciousness
Edward Titchener
Edward Titchener
First major school of thought in psychology - held that even our most complex conscious experienced could be broken down into elemental structure, or component parts, used Introspection to identify these structures
first school of thought to die out
William James
Instrumental in establishing psychology in United States
Wilhelm Wundt
opened first laboratory of psychology
G. Stanley Hall
student of William James
received 1st PhD in psychology in the US
G Stanley Hall
founded American Psychological Association
Mary Witton Calkins
1st female president of American Psychological Association
Mary Witton Calkins
student of William James at Harvard
Harvard refused to award her PhD in psychology, even though she had completed the requirements
Margaret Floy Washburn
student of Edward Titchener at Cornell
1st American woman to acquire PhD in psychology
Margaret Floy Washburn
2nd female president of the American Psychological Association
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
emphasized role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality
John Watson
John Watson
B.F. Skinner
school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning
rejected Structuralism, Functionalism and Psychoanalysis
B.F. Skinner
reinforced Watson's beliefs - psychology should be restricted to studying outwardly observable hehaviors that could be measured and verified.
Carl Rogers
introduced Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic Psychology
Carl Rogers
emphasizes conscious experiences including an individuals potential for psychological growth and self determination, free will, importance of choice
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic Psychology
developed theory of motivation
Francis Sumner
student of Stanley Hall
first African-American to earn a PhD in psychology
early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences, how they allow people and animals to adapt to their environments
based on evolution, that things change over time
thought psychologists should focus on consciousness
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
anything perceptible to the senses, such as a sight, sound, smell, touch or taste
Ivan Pavlov
believed he had discovered mechanism by which all behavior is learned (dog and bell)
Biological Perspective
psychological perspective that studies the physiological aspects of behavior and mental processes
Psychodynamic Perspective
psychological perspective that emphasize the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences and interpersonal relationships in explaining the underlying dynamics of behavior
Humanistic Perspective
psychological perspective that focuses on the mtivation of people to grow psycholically, the influence of interpersonal relationships on self-concept and importance of choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential
Remove obstacles so ppl can develop their best self
"Be all the you can be"
(Rogers, Maslow)
Positive Psychology Perspective
psychological perspective that studies positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communites
Cognitive Perspective
psychological perspective that returns to the important role of mental processes in how people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems and think.
Attitude is everything, how you perceive something = how you react to it
Cross-Cultural Perspective
psychological perspective that studies how cultural factors influence patterns of behavior - the fact that common behaviors are not always universal
(social loafing study)
Evolutionary Perspective
the application of principles of evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena.
analyzes behavior in terms of how it increases a species chances to survive and reproduce
reflex behaviors, etc
Behavioral Perspective
studies how behavior is acquired or modified by environmental consequences
"change the environment, change the person"
the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communciated from one generation to the next
the belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures
cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group
cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual
Biological psychology
specialty area that studies relationship between psychological processes and the body's physical systems, also called physiological psychology
clinical psychology
specialty area that studies the causes, diagnosis, treament, and prevention of behavioral and emotional disorders
cognitive psychology
specialty area that investiges mental processes, including reasoning, thinking, language, perception
counseling psychology
specialty area that helps people adjust, adapt and cope with problems
educational psychology
specialty area that studies how people learn. develop instructional methods and materials used to train people
experimental psychology
specialty area that researches sensory, perceptual processes, learning, motivation and emotion. every are of psychology does this
developmental psychology
specialty area that studies the physical, social and psychological changes that occur at different stages of life
forensic psychology
specialty area that applies psychological principles to legal issues
health psychology
specialty area that focuses on role of psycholgcial factors in the development, prevention and treatment of illness.
industrial/organizational psychology
specialty area that is concerned with relationship between people and work, job analysis, personnel selection and training, productivity, job satisfaction, leadership and group behavior
personality psychology
specialty area that studies the nature of human personality, incl characteristics that make each person unique, and how to se characteristics originated and develped
rehabilitation psychology
specialty area that applies psychological knowledge to heling people with chronic and disabling health conditions adapt to their situation and attain optimal functioning
social psychology
specialty area that explores how people are affected by their social environments, conformity, obedience persuation, attraction, aggression, prejudice, etc
sports psychology
specialty area that uses psychological theory to enhance athletic motivation, performance and consistency
military psychology
specialty area that help sodiers and their famlies deal with combat stress, readjusting to civilian life, injuires, etc
school psychology
specialty area that help teachers, school administrators and parents understand how children learn and develop, counseling, assessing students,
trained in diagnosis, treatment, causes and prevention of psychological disorders
medical degree, must first attain MD or Do, then several years of specialty training in treatment of mental disorders
can hospitalize people
can order medical treatments and prescribe medication
scientific method
a set of assumptions, attitudes and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, generate evidence and draw conclusions
empirical evidence
verifiable evidence that is based on objective observation, measurement and/or experimentation
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables, a testable prediction or question
critical thinking
the active process of minimizing preconceptions and biases while evaluating evidence, determining the conclusions that can reasonably be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations for research findings or other phenomena
a factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured and verified
4 basic goals of psychology
control or influence ... behavior and mental processes
Formulate a testable hypothesis
Step 1 Scientific Process
design study and collect the data
Step 2 Scientific Process
analyze the data, draw conclusions
Step 3 Scientific Process
report the findings
Step 4 Scientific Process
operational definition
a precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured (scale of 1-10, etc)
a branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize and interpret data
statistically significant
a mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance
a statistical techniques that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends
to repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings
research methods for observing and describing behavior
answer: who, what, where and when
naturalistic observation, surveys, case studies, etc
research method used to show that one variable causes change in a second variable.
researcher deliberately varies one factor, then measures the changes produced in the second
a tentaive explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations
integrates and summarizes numerous research findings and observations on a particular topic
claim to be scientific while ignoring the basic rules of science
Magnet Therapy
naturalistic observation
"the science of people and animal watching"
the systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting
naturalistic observation
descriptive research method used when researchers want to avoid being detected by their subjects - to detect behavior patterns that exist naturally, including ones that would be inethical to create in an experiment (bullying, etc)
case studies
intensive, in-depth study of a single individual or small group of individuals to develop a complete profile
case studies
descriptive research method used to investigate rare, unusual or extreme conditions
a questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors or characteristics of a particular group
a selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied
representative sample
a selected segment that very closely parallels the larger population being studied on relevant characteristics (race, age, sex, etc)
random selection
process in which subjects are selected from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study
correlational study
a research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other
important note: does NOT indicate causality
correlation coefficient
a numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables (from -1.00 to 1.00)
positive correlation
a finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together (the closer to +1, the more positive correlation)
negative correlation
a finding that two factors vary systematically in opposite direction, as one increases, the other decreases and vice versa
experimental method
a method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor
independent variable
the purposely manipulated variable thought to produce change in an experiment
also called treatment variable
(being told housekeeping is good exercise)
dependent variable
the variable that is observed and measured for change in an experiment
also called the outcome variable
extraneous variable
a factor of variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could affect the outcome of an experiment
also called confounding variable
(housekeeping staff might talk to each other about the experiment, solved by making entire hotel part of experimental or control groups)
experimental group or experimental condition
in an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable
a fake substance, treatment or procedure that has no known direct effects
placebo effect
any change attributed to a person's beliefs and expectations rather than an actual drug, treatment or procedure
also called expectancy effect
random assignment
the process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all particpants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study
double-blind technique
an experimental control in which neither the particpants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condtion to which the participants have been assigned
demand characteristics
in a research study, subtle cues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behavior that is exprected from the participant
practice effect
any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task
main effect
any change that can be directly attributed to the independent or treatment variable after controlling for other possible influences
single-blind study
a study in which the researchers but not the subjects, ar aware of critical information
control group
in an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions except the independent variable
the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared
(participants who were NOT informed houskeeping is healthy)
natural experiment
a study investigating the effects of a naturally occurring event on the research participants
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
an invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of a radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen or a drug
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
a noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the body's structures and tissues using electromagnetic signals generated by the body in response to magnetic fields
Funtional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
a noninvasive imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels
comparative psychology
the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the behavior of nonhuman animals