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130 terms

Anatomy 1-12

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Autonomic Nervous System
System that controls the organs, glands, cardiac muscle & smooth muscle. Two divisions: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous systems
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
Two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System are:
Involuntary Nervous System
Another name for Autonomic Nervous System
ANS
Visceral muscles are mediated by what system?
Visceral Reflexes
Reflexes that regulate organ functions are called:
Visceral Reflexes
Control of: Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp., digestion, airflow thru resp. passages, elimination and pupillary eye responses are controlled by what reflexes?
Autonomic Nervous System
Control of: Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp., digestion, airflow thru resp. passages, elimination and pupillary eye responses are controlled by what division of the Nervous System?
Visceral Reflex
1. Activation of receptor 2. Transmission of sensory info to CNS 3. Processing of info by CNS 4. Motor response sent to effector Organ Is mediated by what reflex?
Medulla Oblongata
Blood pressure information is carried to THIS ORGAN by sensory nerves. This organ determines rate of blood pressure and signals heart & blood vessels to correct it. What organ is it?
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic System
Most organs receive fibers from what divisions of the Nervous system?
Dual Innervation
Term describing organs receiving fibers from both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system
Opposing effect
Dual innervation of organs in the ANS have this effect:
Complimentary effect
Erectile activity in SNA & PNS are an example of this type of effect in the ANS
Blood Vessels
Organ that does NOT have dual innervation in ANS
Blood Vessels
This organ's diameter is increased by activity and decreased by inactivity of Sympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
A division of the autonomic nervous system that causes the "fight or flight" response
Sympathetic Nervous System
This system is activated during periods of stress or when a person feels threatened
Sympathetic Nervous System
This division of the nervous system is activated during times of stress and is short lived
Autonomic Dysreflexia
Out of control sympathetic activity: elevates blood pressure, can cause stroke, stimulus needs to be removed. What is the term for this?
Feed & Breed
Parasympathetic Nervous System aka
Parasympathetic Nervous system
Division of the Autonomic nervous system that is concerened with feeding & breeding
Paradoxial Fear
Parasympathetic system is activated in situations that are hopeless where massive amounts of parasympthetics are discharged resulting in uncontrolled urination/defecation, heart rate decreasing severly (fainting) or bradying down. Term for this is:
Sympathomimetic
Drug that causes similar effect to activation of sympathetic Nervous system (mimicking drug) Increases heart rate, force of cardiac contraction, blood pressure
sympathomimetic drug
Mimicking drug
inhibiting
lytic - meaning of
Sympatholytic drug
Drug that causes effects that are similar to a situation where SNS cannot be activated - Prevents. Prevents increase in cardiac activity when sympathetic nerves are fired
Parasympathomimetic drug
Causes effect similar to activation of the Parasympathetic nervous system. Decreases heart rate. Increases digestive activity.
Parasympatholytic Drug
Prevents activation of the Parasympathetic nervous system. If organ is being driven excessively by PNS, this drug blocks it.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
This system is most active during non stressfull conditions.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
This system plays an important role in digestion & reproduction.
Astropine
Drug that blocks parasympathetic effect on heart; allowing heart rate to increase. It is a parasympatholytic druge.
Autonomic Tone
When sympathetics & parasympathetics are active at the same time. Creates background (continuous low level) firing of ANS. it is called this kind of "tone".
Resting State
Parasympathetics are stronger when in this state. Heart rate approx 72 Beats per minute during this state.
Decreases
When sympathetic nerves fire more intensely, the Para activity does what?
Increases
When the Sympathetic nerves are relaxing the Para activity does what?
Hypothalamus & parts of brain stem
Balance in the Autonomic Nervous system is maintained by what 2 structures (or organs)?
Vasomotor Tone
Sympathetically induced continous state of blood vessel constriction.
Vasomotor Tone
Loss of this "tone" can dangerously lower blood pressure, plunging person into a lethal shock.
2
Pathways of ANS use how many neurons with a ganglion between each one
Brain or spinal cord (CNS)
The CELL BODY of neuron #1 (of2) in the pathway of ANS is located where?
Ganglion
Axon of Neuron #1 (of 2) in the pathway of ANS leaves the CNS & extends to the ________ (cell body) of Neuron #2
Organ
Axon of neuron #2 (0f 2) leaves ganglion and extends to the what?
Pathway of ANS
1) Axon of neuron #1 leaves CNS 2) Extends to ganglion (cell body of neuron #2). 3) Axon of neuron #2 leaves ganglion & extends to the organ. This is called:
Postganglionic fiber
A neuron that transmits actionpotential from a ganglion to a distal target organ
Preganglionic fiber
A neuron that transmits action potential from the Central Nervous system to a ganglion.
Postganglionic Fibers
These fibers of the Sympathetic & Parasympathetic nervous system secrete different neurotransmitters and account for different effects on each system.
Thorocolumbar Outflow
Sympathetic nerve activity; "flight or flight" is called this kind of "outflow"
Thorocolumbar Outflow
Neurons of SNS leave the Spinal cord at Thoracic & Lumbar levels (T-1 to L-2) and is called this kind of outflow:
Preganglionic fibers
Most of these fibers travel a short distance and synapse within glanglia close to the spinal cord.
Sympathetic ganglia
These ganglia form a chain that runs alongside the vertebral column.
Paravertebral Ganglia
The chain of sympathetic ganglia that run alonside the vertebral column are called sympathetic chain ganglia or what?
Postganglionic fibers
these fibers leave the ganglia and extend to various organs
Paravertebral ganglia
These ganglia form a site where each preganglanic fiber synapses w/multiple postganglionic fibers
widespread
Firing of a single sympathetic neuron is capable of providing a _______sympathetic response. Many organs respond.
Adrenal medulla
This organ acts as a modified sympathetic ganglion.
secrete hormones
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers supply the Adrenal Medulla and cause it to:
Adrenal Medulla
Epinephrine & norepinephrine are secreted by the:
epinephrine
_______and norepinephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla
norepinephrine
_______ and epinephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla
epinephrine & norepinephrine
these hormones resemble neurotransmitters of SNS and circulate in the blood
epinephrine
hormone produced by the adrenal gland, secreted when SNS is stimulated (stress). Responsible for maintaining blood pressure & cardiac output, keeping airways open wide and raising blood sugar levels.
Norepinephrine
Hormone produced by adrenal medulla, similar in chemical properties to epinephrine, but chiefly a vasoconstrictor with little effect on cardiac output.
SNS & adrenal medulla
these two function together for a sustained response
Craniosacral Outflow
Parasympathetic activity. Neurons of Para NS leave CNS at level of brain stem & sacrum S-2 to S4
Parasympathetic nerves
These nerves do NOT have a chain of ganglia running along the spinal cord because they are located close to the target organ.
preganglionic fibers
these fibers are long because because the ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system are located near the target organ
postganglionic fibers
These fibers are short and run from the ganglia to the smooth muscle or glands within the organ
parasympathetic
This activity generates a more localized response because of the location of the ganglia close to the target organs.
Parasympathetic fibers
These fibers travel from the brain stem with 4 cranial nerves
parasympathetic fibers
These fibers travel from the brain stem with 4 cranial nerves. CN-III - Oculomotor. CN-VII - facial. CNIX - glossopharangeal. CN-X - Vagus
CN III Oculomotor Nerve
This nerve innervates most of extrinsic eye muscles that move eye and travels with parasympathetic fibers to 2 extrinsic eye muscles, constrictor muscles (pupillary constriction) and Ciliary muscles (control shape of eye)
CN VII Facial Nerve
This nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to: tear glands (eyes), salivory glands (mouth) and Nasal glands (nose)
CN IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve
This nerve acts with the assistance of trigeminial nerve and carries parasympathetic fibers to salivary glands in the mouth.
CN X Vagus Nerve
This nerve carries over 80% of the parasympathetic fibers and travels from brain stem to organs in the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavities.
Thoracolumbar Outflow
Sympathetic Nervous System aka ___________ outflow
Craniosacral Outflow
Parasympathetic Nervous System aka ___________ outflow
Paravertebral Ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia are located in:
Parasympathetic Ganglia
Ganglia located near target area
2 neurotransmitters of ANS
Acetycholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) are:
Acetycholine
Neurotransmitter that is secreted from the nerve terminals of cholinergic fibers
Cholingergic fiber
A neuron that secretes acetycholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter
Norepinephrine
A neurotrasnmitter secreted by the adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system; activates adrenergic receptors. AKA Noradrenaline
Norepinephrine
Noradrenaline aka
adrenergic fiber
A fiber that secretes NE (neorepinephrine) is called:
Cholinergic fiber
A fiber that secretes ACh (acetycholine) is called:
Preganlic fibers
These fibers secrete ACh & are cholinergic fibers
cholinergic fibers
Postganglionic fibers of the PARASYMPATHETIC nervous system secrete ACh and are called:
andrenergic fibers
Postganglionic fibers of the SYMPATHETIC nervous system secrete NE (norepinephrine) and are called:
ACh
This neurotransmitter is secreted by cholinergic fibers and diffuses to its receptor
norepinephrine (NE)
This neurotransmitter is secreted by adrenergic fibers and reabsorbed by adrenergic nerve terminals (reuptake)
Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
This enzyme degrades norepinephrine (NE) and is located in the adrenergic nerve terminal
Reuptake
Effects of SNS being prolonged are primarily due to the effects of being reabsorbedby adrenergic nerve terminals, the process is called:
acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
Effects of ACh are short lived by ACh being degraded in synapse by:
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
Enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine in CNS. This inhibiter drug prevents break down of NE & used in treatment of depression.
Receptor
Any side on cell to which a neurotransmitter binds, causing alteration in cell function
ANS receptor types
Cholinergic & Adrenergic Receptor
cholinergic receptor types
Muscarinic & Nicotinic Receptors
Muscarinic Receptors
Cholinergic receptor that is activated by acetylcholine; located primarily on the target organs of the parasympathetic organs
Nicotinic Receptors
type of receptor that is activated by ACh; located in the Autonomic ganglia & within the neuromuscular junction
Target organs
Muscarinic receptors are located on_________ in parasympathetic system.
Nicotinic-neural receptors (Nn)
Receptors located in ganglia of ANS, located in both para and sympathetic system. Responses difficult to predict
Nicotinic muscle receptors (Nm)
Nicotinic receptors located outside the ANS, on skeletal muscles in neuromuscular junction, causes skeletal muscle contraction
alpha & beta
Two main types of adrenergic receptors
Adrenergic receptors
Receptors located on target organs.
Andreginic receptors
Stimulation of sympathetic nervous system is caused by activation of these receptors:
B1
This receptor increases heart rate and strength of contraction
B2
This receptor dialates (increases) airflow
a1
This receptor dilates pupil (enlarges)
a1
This receptor constricts blood vessels
B2
This receptor relaxes uterus (helps stop premature delivery)
muscarinic
This receptor decreases heart rage
Muscarinic
This receptor constricts (lessons) air flow
Muscarinic
This receptor Constricts pupil (smaller)
Muscarinic
This receptor contracts bladder wall
Muscarinic
This receptor relaxes and opens sphinctor
alpha & beta
Andrenergic receptors are classified as:
dopamine receptors
type of Adrenergic Receptors located in blood vessels of kidney
agonist
Drug that directly activates receptors
Antagonist
blocker drug that prevents receptor activation
neurotransmitters
ACH & NE bind to receptors and are called:
2 types of autonmic receptors
(cholinergic) muscarinic and adrenergic receptors
Autonomic receptors
These receptors are located on target organs of sympathetic nervous system.
lying
this activates sympathetic system and causes phsiologic responses that are picked up on polygraph machine
bored
when you are _____ your pupils constrict.
excited
When you are _____ your pupils dilate
MS
a progressive demyelination of neurons and destruction of oligodendrocytes. Impairs sensory & motor activity
Peripheral neuropathy
Loss of sensation due to nerve damage, most severe in hands and feet. Usually caused by diabetes melitus
Poliomyelitis
A contagious infection that affects brain and spinal cord. Destroyes lower motor neurons in brain stem & spinal cord. Paralysis occurs
Sciatica
Form of neuritis characterized by shap pains along sciatic nerve and its branches. Pain usually radiates from buttocks into hip and thing areas
Shingles
aka herpes zoster. Acute inflamation of dorsal root ganglia. Related to chicken pox virus that lies dormant in nerves. Causes painful lesions along affected nerves.