In the 16th century religious dissent was aggravated by Pope Julius II's sale of?
The artist knighted by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was?
According to humanists, the liberal arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture required education in the Classics and?
In 1550, who wrote the first survey of Italian art history called Lives of the Most Excellent Architects, Painters, and Sculptors?
The Gutai group was known for what?
regularly destroying it's creations
In his pop art, Roy Lichtenstein utilized heavy black outlines, flat primary colors, and Benday dots, which mimicked what?
Which artist created Happenings in the 1960's that actively involved the viewers?
Richard Hamilton's Just What is it that Makes Today's Homes so Different, so Appealing? demonstrates the initial emergence of Pop art in _______.
Which artist published the Americans, a book of 83 photographs documenting the social landscape of the United States in the 1950's?
What term refers to the technique of juxtaposing light and dark to enhance the modeling of three-dimensional form?
What subject is depicted in the eight triangular spandrels on the ceiling of the sistine chapel?
the ancestors of Christ
In contrast with Donatello's David, Michelangelo's marble statue of the same subject is __________.
What change to Giorgione's "The Tempest" was discovered through x-rays of the work?
a second woman had originally been where the soldier stands
Raphael's portrait of Maddalena Strozzi differs form Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa in Raphael's _______.
emphasis on her sumptuous clothes and jewelry
Sofonisba Anguissola's successful career is unusual among female artists of the period because she _____.
was not the daughter of an artist
One aspect of Cellini's Saltcellar of King Francis I that reflects the conventions of Mannerist sculpture is the figures __________.
All of the following are characteristics of Mannerism except
a) balanced compositions based on mathematical relationships b) the unconventional use of Classical elements c) esoteric or ambiguous subject matter d) a demonstration of extreme technical virtuosity
a) balanced compositions based on mathematical relationships
In opposition to earlier Gothic depictions of the Last Judgment, Michelangelo's version __________.
depicts a swarm of resurrected humanity
The new Catholic focus on sermons and music required churches to have what?
What was Pope III's reaction to the Protestant Reformation?
He convened the Counsil of Trent
One characteristic of Palladio's church of San Giorgio Maggiore that departs from traditional Renaissance design is what?
a wide lower level
Veronese was called before the Inquisition for his painting of the Last Supper because of the inclusion of elements such as what?
Thomas Jefferson owned a copy of Andrea Palladio's treatise on what?
What technique was not used in Leonardo Da Vinci's The Virgin of the Rocks in order to create an illusion of an atmospherically naturalistic space?
a) one-point perspective b) atmospheric perspective c) chiaroscuro d) sfumato
a) one-point perspective
In the Pieta, Michelangelo Buonarroti demonstrates Northern European influence in the what?
choice of subject itself
The Villa Rotunda is similar to the Tempietto in all of the following EXCEPT
a) its residential function b) the use of the central plan c) the inspiration from Roman Temples d) the geometric clarity of its design
a) it's residential function
Which of the following would only be found in a figurative work of art?
a) sfumato b) chiaroscuro c) ignudi d) a cartoon
Conservative clergy complained about Michelangelo Buonarotti's Last Judgment because of the ___________.
nudity of the religious figures
Veronese's painting Feast in the House of Levi caused him to be called in front of the inquisition because he what?
included figures unrelated to the biblical subject
What significant design feature did both Donato Bramante and Michelangelo Buonarotti advocate for in their design of St. Peter's Basilica?
the use of a central plan layout
The rectilinear emphasis given the church of II Gesu in Rome reflects what?
changes in Catholic liturgical practice during the Counter-Reformation
What distinguishes Properzia de Rossi from other women artists of the period?
Giorgio Vasari acknowledged her accomplishments
Although dramatically different from painting of the High Renaissance, how does Tintoretto's The Last Supper demonstrate the influence of earlier artists of the period?
the use of linear perspective to create the illusion of space
During the Reformation, many artists turned to secular subjects, including moralizing depictions of human folly and weakness, still lifes, and landscapes, because
of sudden loss of patronage for religious art in newly Protestant lands
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, Holland was what?
a reformer of the Roman Catholic Church from within
Which historical figure did NOT support the Protestant Reformation in Europe?
a) Martin Luther b) Desiderius Erasmus c) Charles V d) Henry VII
c) Charles V
Albrecht Durer made his fortune from what?
publications of his prints
The main panel of Tilman Riemenschneider's altarpiece of the Holy Blood depicts the what?
Based on the discussion in the text, what influence may have inspired Matthias Grunewald's graphic imagery in the Isenheim altarpiece?
the visions of St. Bridget of Sweden
In Albrecht Durer's Adam and Eve, the symbol of Satan is represented by what?
According to the text, German Renaissance sculptors produced their most original work in what?
Where is the Cour Carree?
Palais de Louvre
Francis I's effort to modernize Gothic traditions in France is best demonstrated by what?
his hiring of Italian artists for his court
What distinguished Jean Clouet's portrait of Francis I from German and Flemish portraits of the period?
the more idealized facial features
When Juan de Herrera was appointed architect of the Escorial complex, he dramatically changed the design by what?
adding second stories on all wings
The loose brushwork of El Greco's paintings suggest the influence of what?
Quentin Massey's Money Changer and his Wife recalls a famous fifteenth century painting by who?
While traveling to Italy, Pieter Bruegel the elder made detailed drawings of what?
the Alpine landscape
What city was the commercial and artistic center of the southern Netherlands in the sixteenth century?
Which work of art was once known as the Strawberry Plant?
Hieronymus Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights
Which Flemish painter developed an illustrious reputation as a portraitist during the sixteenth century?
Caterina van Hemessen
England's first professional Renaissance architect, who designed Hardwick Hall, was who?
Patronized by the queen of England and other notables, Nicholas Hilliard was known for the production of what?
Hardwick Hall incorporates aspects of Classicism through its what?
geometric order and symmetrical arrangement
Hans Baldung Green's Death and the Matron used brilliant color and dramatic poses to highlight all of the following EXCEPT
a) sensuality with mortality b) religion with secular life c) voluptuousness with decay d) attraction with repulsion
b) religion with secular life
How does Bruegel's The Harvesters reflect his interest in the "modern" artistic developments seen in Italian Renaissance painting of the sixteen century?
the use of aerial perspective to create illusionistic space in the painting
Tilman Riemenschneider's modernization of the German altarpiece can be observed in the Altarpiece of the Holy Blood in it's what?
introduction of the unpainted natural wood surface
The elongated bodies of Primaticcio's sculptures at Fontainebleau demonstrate a shift in France towards what style of art?
Which statements best characterizes the content of The Money Changer and His Wife by Quentin Massys?
a) It is a complex moral tale about religious practice and devotion b) It is a genre scene about a husband and a wife who help each other in their business c) It is an allegoric scene referencing the last judgment
a) It is a complex moral tale about religious practice and devotion
The mysterious grisaille closed panels of the Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch serve to what?
counterbalance the bright colors of the triptych when opened
What caused the increased popularity of English country residences, such as Hardwick Hall, built during the Tudor period?
a new class of aristocrats wanted to display their wealth
What was NOT an effect of the Protestant Reformation on the art of Northern Europe?
a) the emergence of new subject matter b) artists such as Albrecht Durer and Pieter Bruegel traveling to Italy c) a burgeoning art market
b) artists such as Albrecht Durer and Pieter Bruegel traveling to Italy
What similarity may be found in the artistic approaches of the German artist Matthias Grunewald and El Greco, working in Spain?
an interest in visionary expressions of spirituality
How did sixteenth century Italian architecture influence contemporary practices in France, England, and Spain?
building employed more classical forms and proportions
A goal of Baroque art was to what?
evoke emotional responses
The notion of spiritual transport embodied by Gianlorenzo Bernini's St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy reflects the idea of what?
Gianlorenzo Bernini's sculptural installation in the Cornaro Chapel of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome is based on what?
the spiritual vision of a Spanish mystic
Tenebrism refers to what?
the use of strong theatrical lighting to pick forms out from a dark backround
What is the symbolic significance of Gianlorenzo Bernini's Chair of Peter in St. Peters Basillica?
It deflects the direct descent of Christian authority from Peter to pope
What was Carlos Maderno's contribution to the design of St. Peter's Basillica?
the facade and longitudial nave
What distinguishes Aniballe Carrassi's ceiling for the gallery of Palazzo Farnese from Pietro de Cortana's the Glorification of the Papacy of Urban VIII?
the use of quadro riportato
Seventeenth century Spanish art was profoundly influenced by who?
Seventeenth century Spanish architects embraced what?
What motivated the addition of an elaborate Baroque facade to the Romanesque cathedral of St. James in Santiago de Compostela in Spain?
renewed interest in pilgrimages to the shrines of saints
Bartolome Esteban Murillo's The Immaculate Conception conforms to specific instructions about images of the virgin developed by who?
In a series of 24 paintings, Peter Paul Rubens commemorated the life of who?
Marie de Medici of France
Rembrandt van Rijn absorbed from Pieter Lastman an interest in what?
naturalism, drama, and tenebrism
Johannes Vermeer's Woman Holding a Balance seems to be a metaphor for what?
Paintings such as Gerard ter Borch's The Suitor's Visit are best described as what?
Pieter Claesz's Still Life with Tazza may be interpreted as all of the following EXCEPT
a) a representation of the Last Judgment b) a vanitas painting that communicates a moral message c) a display of the patrons wealth and status d) a demonstration of the artist's painting skills
a) a representation of the Last Judgment
Though Nicolas Poussin was born in France, he worked largely in ______.
Where was the primary residence of Louis XIV of France?
Seventeenth century England is best known for what?
Peter Paul Ruben's paintings in the Banqueting House of Charles I represent the birth of a new nation after the what?
union of England and Scotland
Why was Christopher Wren commissioned to build St. Paul's cathedral in London?
to replace what had burned down in the Great Fire
What distinguishes the painting style of Spanish artists such as Francisco de Zurbaran from other European painters of the seventeenth century?
the combination of realism and ecstatic religiosity
The Garden of Versailles included all of the following EXCEPT
a) fountains b) the Petit Trianon c) parterres d) quadratura
Gianloreno Bernini's baldacchino symbolizes the union of Christian and Jewish traditions through what?
the twisting columns
What similarly unites the artistic production of Inigo Jones and Nicolas Poussin?
an emphasis on Classical principals and ideals
What elements of St. Paul's Cathedral best demonstrates the influence of High Renaissance architecture of Christopher Wren?
a colannade around the drum
All of the following can be classified as group portraits EXCEPT
a) Jan Steen's the Feast of St. Nicholas b) Frans Hal's Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of St. Adrian c) Diego Velazquez's Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) d) Rembrandt van Rijn's the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp
a) Jan Steen's the Feast of St. Nicholas
What do scholars suggest is revealed by Artemisia Gentileschi's characteristic portrayal of subjects such as Judith beheading Holofernes?
the artist's struggle to establish herself as an artist
Based on the texts discussion, what cultural characteristic of the seventeenth century is revealed by the engravings of Anna Maria Sibylla Merian?
an increased interest in natural science
The undulating walls and elongated central plan of Francesco Borromini's church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane were created to what?
conform to the irregular dimensions of the site
What was the function of Peter Paul Ruben's series of paintings devoted to Marie de Medici?
to commemorate the founding of the Bourbon royal dynasty
Most enlightenment philosopher's believed that, when freed of past religious and political shackles, people would act how?
rationally and morally
The new intellectual trend that began as a literary movement in the 1770's was known as what?
Rococo salons were decorated to convey an atmosphere of what?
sensuality and luxury
The artist commonly credited as the originator and greatest practitioner of French Rococo style in painting was who?
Clodion is best known for creating
playful, erotic tabletop sculptures of terra cotta
In the early eighteenth century, the French court relocated to where?
The Grand Tour focused on the art from where?
Rosalba Carriera achieved international fame for her what?
Canaletto is most known for what?
selling his paintings to British visitors
Johann Joachim Wincklemann's 1755 pamphlet attacked what?
Josiah Wedgwood opened a factory that specialized in decorative what?
John Singleton Copley's painting Watson and the Shark likely contains a political message referencing
sympathy for American slaves
What architectural feature is distinctive Gothic Revival style?
Who was the primary source for the Neoclassical style in British country homes such as Chiswick house?
Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun became the favorite portrait painter of who?
What subject matter is depicted in Jacques-Louis David's painting Death of Marat?
the assassination of a contemporary French revolutionary
One of Count d'Angiviller's first official acts was the ban of what from the salon of 1775?
The genre paintings of Jean-Baptiste Greuze were considered the visual counterpart to what contemporary literary genre?
Which artist painted moralizing genre scenes inspired by seventeenth-century dutch paintings?
Francisco Goya's Third of May, 1808 represents a Spanish conflict with who?
The Mission San Xavier Del Bac was unusual for the area of Arizona because why?
it was built with bricks rather than adobe
In his portrait of the family of Charles IV, Francisco Goya mimicked the work of Velazquez by what?
including himself in the painting
An esquisse is a what?
preliminary sketch for a much larger work
In Liberty Leading the People: July 28, 1830, Eugene Delacroix depicts liberty as what?
a half-nude allegorical woman
The paintings of John Constable concentrate on the genre of what?
What detail of Napolean in the Plague House at Jaffa reflects Antoine-Jean Gro's training in the Neoclassical style?
the compositional use of a shallow stage-like setting
How does Monticello deviate from the Neoclassical design used by Benjamin Latrobe for the U.S Capital?
the use of native building materials
Most Gothic Revival buildings of the nineteenth century were what?
Why is Giovanni Battista Piranesi's View of the Pantheon, Rome an example of the vedute popular among tourists on the Grand Tour?
it depicts a real rather than imagined site
What distinguishes John Constable's paintings such as the Hay Wain from the contemporary landscapes of Joseph Mallard William Turner?
Constable's sense of nostalgia for the land
Whose influence is most apparent in Parnassus by Anton Raphael Mengs?
Johanne Joachim Winckelmann
All of the following were commonly represented in Rococo paintings EXCEPT
a) moralizing scenes based on ancient history b) erotic images of nude or partially nude figures c) classical love stories and mythological scenes
a) moralizing scenes based on ancient history
How does Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres's Large Odalisque depart from neoclassical tradition of artists such as Jacques-Louis David?
it's exotic and sensual subject matter
What distinguishes Angelica Kauffmann from most female painters of her time?
she painted historical subjects
What design element, seen in the church of the Vierzehnheiligen, distinguishes the Rococo style in architecture?
the integrated use of architectural and decorative elements
How is Geracault's Raft of the "Medusa" similar to Daumier's "Rue Transonain"?
Both images call attention to contemporary social concerns
The philosophical ideas of Denis Diderot are best reflected in what?
the genre paintings of Jean-Baptist Greuze
All of the following are characteristics of Romanticism EXCEPT
a) evoking a personal emotional response b) themes of poetic melancholy or tragedy c) communicating moral ideas and public values d) images rendered in a loose, painterly style
communicating moral ideas and public values
Friedrich Engels was what?
One of the authors of the Communist Manifesto
The biggest new contribution to art in the second half of the nineteenth century was what?
Following the Paris riots of 1848, the person charged with rebuilding the city was who?
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux's "The Dance" departed from academic conventions by what?
depicting the figures as spontaneous and down to earth rather than idealized
In the book "The Pencil of Nature," Henry Fox Talbot
a) presented photographs of idyllic rural scenery or carefully arranged still lifes as works of art b) used photography to document monuments around the world c) shot and gathered famous landscapes from all over Europe d) focused on the technical aspects and potential scientific application of the new medium
a) presented photographs of idyllic rural scenery or carefully arranged still lives as works of art
What did Louise-Jacques-Mande Daguerre first patent in 1839?
a fixed photographic process
All of these are types of photographs EXCEPT
a) daguerreotype b) calotype c) camera obscura d) albumen print
c) camera obscura
What intentional effect, seen in the portrait of Thomas Carlyle, did Julia Margaret Cameron often use to distinguish her work from commercial photography?
it is slightly out of focus
Gustave Courbet intended his painting "The Stone Breakers" to what?
make a political statement
Edmonia Lewis is best known for her what?
sculpted busts and medallions of abolitionist leaders and civil war heroes
What was the source of artistic inspiration for Dante Gabriel Rossetti and other Pre-Raphaelites?
the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance
What country was home to a group of realists called "The Wanderers"?
One of the most popular French painters of the period, Rosa Bonheur, specialized in painting what?
What enabled the Impressionists to practice painting en plein air?
the development of metal tubes for oil paint
What artist painted the landscape that gave rise to the name of Impressionists?
In contrast to Monet or Pissarro, Renoir focused much of his attention on what?
"Impasto" is a term meaning what?
thick application of paint
Art Nouveau can be identified by what?
intricate series of long, graceful curves
The artist most responsible for developing the Art Nouveau style in architecture was who?
Prior to establishing her own career, Camille Claudel worked as an assistant to who?
Where did French artist Paul Gauguin travel to in his efforts to find an escape from the industrialized modern-life of nineteenth century Paris?
Louis Sullivan is one of a group of artists associated with what?
The Chicago School
The first American to study architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris was who?
Richard Morris Hunt
What distinguishes Cezanne's paintings like Mont Saint-Victoire from those of the Impressionists?
his constructive method of paint application
Which of the artists was NOT an American expatriate?
a) Mary Cassatt b) Thomas Eakins c) Henry Ossawa Tanner d) James Abbot McNeil Whistler
b) Thomas Eakins
What did contemporary viewers find most scandalous about Edouard Manet's "Le Dejeunder sur I'Herbe"?
that it lacked an allegorical or historical context
How do Georges Seurat's "A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte" differ from the Impressionists approach to painting?
the use of color theory to determine color combination
Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace is significant to the history of modern architecture because it ____________.
was constructed using industrially produced prefabricated parts
Which nineteenth century artistic movement most reflected Baudelaire's notion of "the painter of modern life"?
All of the following gave rise to the modern skyscraper EXCEPT
a) the World's Columbian Exposition in Ohio b) an increase in the urban population c) the invention of the electric elevator d) new technologies for producing steel
a) the World's Columbian Exposition in Ohio
What was John Ruskin's major complaint about James Abbott McNeill Whistler's painting "Nocturne in Black and Gold"?
it lacked moral value and social purpose
Why did Monet paint the facade of Rouen Cathedral over and over again?
to record changing effects of light, color, and atmosphere
How did Henry Fox Talbot's photographic approach differ from that of Civil War photographers such as Alexander Gardner and Timothy O'Sullivan?
he considered photography a creative process to make art
What element of Henri Labrouste's Reading Room at the Bibliotheque Nationale most clearly demonstrates his avant-garde approach to architecture?
the thin diameter of the supporting columns
The three political ideologies that struggled for world supremacy in the first half of the 20th century were what?
communism, fascism, and capitalism
The Great Depression was ended by what?
the military build up of World War II
Pablo Picasso's painting Les Demoiselles de Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon) was heavily influenced by art from where?
The artist credited with the joint invention of Cubism, and who worked side by side with Pablo Picasso is Paris, was who?
The favorite motifs from the German artistic group Die Brucke were the what?
natural world and the nude body
The futurist movement was founded where?
Hannah Hoch's "Cut With the Dada Kitchen Knife Through the Last Wiemar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany" is an example off what?
In his photographs Alfred Stieglitz attempted to compose images of what?
romanticized urban scenes
The best-known works of Georgia O'Keffee focus on close-up views of what?
What was the primary concern of the Photo-Secessionists?
to establish photography as a form of fine art
The Gothic-style skyscraper built by the firm of Cass Gilbert in 1911-1913, which was then the world's tallest building, was the what?
Frank Lloyd Wright's Frederick C. Robie House in Chicago is an example of what architectural style?
All of the following are criteria of Le Corbusier's "Five Points of a New Architecture" EXCEPT
a) integration into the surrounding environment b) movable interior walls c) flat roofs used as terraces d) elevating buildings on free-standing posts
a) integration of the surrounding environment
Adolf Loos associated ornament with culture what?
Surrealist artists used the technique of automatism, which was supposed to what?
release the subconscious to create art
What building demonstrates the direct influence of Piet Mondrian?
Gerrit Rietveld's Schroder House
The artists associated with Unit One are known for the production of what?
biomorphic sculptural forms
The "Manifesto of Surrealism" was written by who?
Bauhaus artist Anni Albers specialized in the production of what?
James Van Der Zee worked in the medium of _______.
Oswald de Andrade's "Anthropophagic Manifesto" suggested that Brazilian artists should what?
ingest European culture, let it strengthen their Brazilianness, then get rid of it
Grant Wood is an American artist associated with what?
Artists in what country organized Modern Art Week in 1922 to announce their artistic independence from Europe?
Tom Thomson is noted for painting the rugged landscape of what?
What pictorial device did Barnett Newman invent to divide the solid field color in his paintings?
Which of the following members of the New York School worked primarily in sculpture?
Canadian artist Jean-Paul Riopelle created colorful paintings such as Knight Watch by doing what?
squeezing the paint directly from tube to canvas and spreading it with a palette knife
The tactile emphasis in Art Informel, exemplified by Wol's painting, finds its closest parallel in the Abstract Expressionist work of which artist?
Willem de Kooning
What distinguishes the Blaue Reitar artists in Munich from other Expressionist artists of the early twentieth century?
experimentation with purely abstract forms
Kurt Schwitters's Merzbild reflects which artistic influence in its use of collaged elements?
According to critic Clement Greenberg, what is most important in a work of art?
the aesthetic impact of the formal elements
Orphism is distinguished by its what?
use of "simultaneity" to create harmonic unity
The Great Depression was a key factor in the Development in 1930 of what?
the Federal Arts project
What characteristic was shared by artists of the 291 gallery?
They were influenced by European Modernism
The sense of movement suggested by the fragmented forms of Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a staircase links this painting most closely to the interests of the what?
One aspect of Henry Matisse's "Le Bonheur de Vivre" (The Joy of Life) that departed from academic norms to be avant-garde was its what?
emphasis on expressive color and bold outlines
Mexican artists hired by the government to create murals favored naturalism because the new government thought what?
abstract art was incomprehensible to the public at large
What name did the Nazi's give art they viewed as immoral and inappropriate?
The Cold War was a state of tension between the United States and _______.
Joseph Kosuth and Bruce Nauman were heavily influenced by, and included references to, the art of who?
What key message is the basis for Joseph Beuy's "How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare?"
the inability to communicate artistic ideas
Robert Smithson intended his Spiral Jetty to do what?
suggest the primordial ocean
Minimalist artists such as Donald Judd or Robert Morris embraced what?
the conceptualization of the artwork as a whole
Robert Venturi rejected the Modernist architectural style and instead sought what?
One architect who departed from the strictly rectilinear form of the International style for his Guggenheim Museum in New York was who?
Frank Lloyd Wright
The Neo-Expressionist painter who created works that grew out of graffiti art was who?
Craig Owens argued that the ideal Postmodern medium was what?
Richard Serra's Tilted Arc was removed from the Javitz Plaza because it what?
generated intense public outrage
What is the subject matter of Kerry James Marshall's painting "Many Mansions"?
a Chicago housing project
What artwork was created to raise awareness around social issues such as homelessness and the displacement of the working classes in London?
Rachel Whiteread's "House"
The green panels in Rasheed Araeen's "Green Painting IV" reference what?
Andres Serrano's controversial work "Piss Christ" is what?
How does Shirin Neshat's photograph "Rebellious Silence" contribute to the postcolonialist discourse present in contemporary art?
it challenges simplified characterizations of women in Islamic cultures
Dave Chihuly produces sculpture primarily in what?
Wenda Du dedicates his art to what?
bringing different races together
What underlying issue do both Fred Wilson and Kara Walker address in their work?
slavery in the United States
What is the subject matter of Tony Oursler's 2008 installation entitled "Multiplexed"?
individual identity in a digital age
Martin Puryear's "Plenty's Boast" refers to Minimalism in all of the following EXCEPT
a) the use of abstraction b) the simplified clarity of the sculptural form c) the monumental scale of the object d) the handcrafted material
d) the handcrafted material
Why is Zara Hadid's Vitra Fire Station considered an example of Deconstructivist architecture?
it challenges our expected perceptions about formal unity
What work of art was inspired by student protests over the war in Vietnam?
Claes Oldenburg, "Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks"
All of the following are characteristics of the work of Christo and Jeanne-Claude EXCEPT
a) their projects often took years to gain the necessary permits b) they relied on public and corporate funders to realize their projects c) their installations were temporary, often for only a few days of weeks d) their works were public, large scale, and site-specific
b) they relied on public and corporate funders to realize their projects
Although made in different countries and addressing different social circumstances, Anselm Kiefer's Heath of Brandenburg March and Jean-Michel Basquiat's Charles the First share what?
a Neo-Expressionist technique, as witnessed in the energetic brushwork of each
Norman Foster's Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank departs from the conventions of the International style in its what?
external placement of the supporting steel skeleton and service systems
What shared concern underlies these works by Felix Gonzales-Torres and Kiki Smith?
issues surrounding AIDS
What ironic element distinguishes Roy Lichenstein's "Oh, Jeff...I love you, too...but..." from the works of other Pop artists discussed in your text?
his practice of using Benday dots
How does the feminist art of Cindy Sherman and Barbara Kruger differ from the earlier work of Judy Chicago?
its relativist view that considers how society shapes ideas of gender
All of the following issues are raised by Santiago Sierra in his performance 133 People Paid to Have Their Hair Dyed Blonde EXCEPT
a) a lack of racial diversity at the Venice Biennale b) the cultural elitism of the art world c) issues of poverty and socioeconomic conditions d) the power of the gaze to objectify women