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6th Social Studies CRCT Review #2 Latin America, Caribbean, & Canada
Part 2 -- Latin America, the Caribbean, Canada
What happened as a result of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas?
The Spanish destroyed both civilizations with diseases and weapons
Who were Cortes and Montezuma?
Cortes was a Spaniard who lead the defeat of Montezuma, the Aztec leader (Montezuma = Mexico)
Who were Pizarro and Atahualpa?
Pizarro was a Spaniard who lead the defeat of Atahualpa, the last Incan leader (Atahualpa = Andes)
What was the Columbian Exchange?
The exchange of plants, animals, ideas, slaves, and diseases between the Old World and New World (Old = Europe, New = the Americas)
What were some of the RESULTS of the Columbian Exchange?
Slavery, native (indigenous) peoples died from Old World diseases, Spaniards introduced the horse to Latin America, new ways of farming were shared
How did the Columbian Exchange affect the indigenous population of Latin America?
50-75% of the indigenous population died from diseases from the Old World
Why are Toussaint L'Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Miguel Hidalgo important?
All three led independence movements; L'Ouverture in Haiti, Bolivar in South America, and Hidalgo in Mexico
What is the most popular language spoken in Latin America?
Spanish (because the Spanish settled there)
What is the language spoken in Brazil?
Portuguese (because the Portuguese settled there)
What was the Cuban Revolution?
Castro led a revolution against the government in Cuba in the late 1950s; made Cuba communist
What were some of the results of the Cuban Revolution?
Cuba became communist, Cuban Missile Crisis (Cuba had Soviet missiles aimed at America), America placed an embargo (no trade) on Cuba that is still in place today
What type of government does Cuba have?
Communist = autocratic, unitary
What was the Zapatista Guerrilla Movement?
The Zapatistas protest unfair treatment of native farmers in Mexico; they support better living conditions and equal treatment for the farmers.
What are the most common governments found in Latin America?
Mostly federal republics/democracies; Cuba has a communist/autocratic/unitary
Why is air pollution a problem in Mexico City?
The geography of Mexico City keeps pollution in the area; Mexico City is in an ancient volcano crater (surrounded by mountains on all sides)
Why is oil-related pollution a problem in Venezuela?
90% of Venezuela's revenue comes from oil revenues
Why are rain forests in Brazil being cut down?
They use the land for farms, especially beef farms; they also sell the timber (DEFORESTATION)
What is NAFTA? What does it do?
NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT; removed trade barriers between US, Mexico, and Canada, making it easier for trade
What Canadian province would like to be independent? What language is spoken there?
Quebec; they speak French
What type of government does Canada have?
Parliamentary democracy/federal republic/constitutional monarchy (Great Britain's monarchy)
REMEMBER! In a parliamentary democracy, the people elect the __________ who then APPOINTS a ___________ (head of state). The citizens ________ vote for the Prime Minister!
REMEMBER! In a parliamentary democracy, the people elect the LEGISLATURE who then APPOINTS a Prime Minister (head of state). The citizens DO NOT vote for the Prime Minister!
Why were Cortes and Pizarro able to defeat the Aztecs and Inca?
The Europeans brought DISEASES that killed most of the native Americans. They also had guns, cannons, and horses and the natives did not.
What did the Spaniards introduce to the Americas that changed the way native Americans lived and fought in wars?
Why did the African slave trade grow in Latin America?
Plantation owners needed people to work on their farms and Native Americans were dying of disease; Africans were stronger and healthier.
Spain colonized many countries in Latin America. How is their influence still felt today?
By the mixed races (mulattoes, mestizos), the languages they speak, and the Catholic religion
Why is Latin America so diverse? (Diverse means lots of different kinds, different)
Because of the mixed races (mulattoes, mestizos)
Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?
A former slave from Haiti that learned to read and write. He lead the Haitian independence movement.
What did Toussaint L'Ouverture do?
Fought for independence for HAITI; (Remember, L'Ouverture is a FRENCH name, and Haiti is the only French-speaking region we've studied in Latin America.)
What did Miguel Hidalgo do?
Fought for independence for MEXICO; Miguel + Mexico
What did Simon Bolivar do?
Fought for independence for South America; Bolivar = Bolivia = South America
What happened to Miguel Hidalgo?
He was executed by the Spaniards because he wanted them out of Mexico. 10 years after he was murdered, Mexico finally got its freedom.
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