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Terms in this set (55)
"All Greek" sport and institutionalization including festivals, prizes, and facilities
How does this greek sport become more and more important?
Preserve and promote identity: between city-states and contrast with non-greeks
Poli and Atheneans were able to show war and dominance in a good way.
Origins of the Panhellenic games
Funeral vs. Cultic games (heroes and gods)
Who were the Olympics held for?
History of the rise of the city-state and cults
History intertwined, adapted, and confused
Myths and stories that explained why things happened. Needed legitimate foundations
What did the Panhellenic games have in common with one another?
Nudity, Crowns, Participants, and Some truce
Games were Stephanitic or Chrematitic
Games were of crowns or values. Prizes were of monetary wealth. (Stephanos-crown) (chremata-prizes)
What were the local games?
Who are the participants of the games?
Greek men and boys
What are the four main festivals?
Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean
Organizes in a four-year cycle with 6 festivals; called the periods, or "circuit"
The Olympic and Pythian games are quad-lineal
The Isthmian and Nemean games are bi-lineal
Why are the games so spread out?
Because they want everyone to be able to go to each games
What is an example of the order of the periods?
Nemean, Isthmian, Pythian, Nemean, Isthmian, Olympic
Where were the Pythian games held?
What were the Pythian games in honor of?
Apollo, God of music
Pythian games are the second greatest of the crown games
When was the start of the Olympic games?
When was the start of the Pythian games?
Most famous of Greek oracles; woman, known to be a virgin; most would come to seek the advice of Pythia
No hero cult, First scared war, Chrematitic games in 586 BC, Stephanitic games in 582 BC
means to rot
What happened between Kirrha and the Amphictyonic league?
Kirrha gave fines to people passing through. Amphictyonic league destroyed Kirrha and became to "watch over" of pythia
Sanctuary and Temple of Apollo
Mt. Parnassus; Peribolos-a low wall that circled; Temple of apollo was a early wooden form and ancient maxims
The most earliest games, they were not panhellenic, only local
Events at the Pythian games
586BC:games similar to Olympia, flute-playing and singing, more events for boys, only ONE equestrian event-keles
582BC:tethrippon (four horse chariot race; Cleisthenes first to win), Kithara-playing
Later: Hoplitodromos, pankration for boys, synoris and keles for foals
What was the oldest event at the Pythian games?
Kithara-singing; chrematitic associations
Where were the Isthmian games and who were they held by?
Where in Istahmia and held by Corinth
Origins of the Isthmian games
1) Funeral rites for Melikertes, later named Palaimon- wrestling (becomes a hero associated with sailors) 2) Theseus is a demigod deals with the Sinis ("pine-bender") who is messing with innocent travelers
What God is worshiped at the Isthmian games?
When were the Isthmian games started?
582 or 580 BC
The Isthmian games were reorganized local games
What kind of city was Corinth?
Cosmopolitan and political; wealth and trade
Why was the festival for the Isthmian games for Poseidon?
Because of Corinthian's connection with the sea
Why were Equestrian events big at the Isthmian games?
Because of the connection of Poseidon and horses
Why did the Eleans boycott the Isthmian games?
An ancient curse and broken truce
First the Isthmian games received crowns of pine but that changed to what?
What age groups were allowed at the Isthmian games?
men, youths and boys
The Nemean games were held at which places?
Held at Nemea, then Argos, then Nemea, then Agros again
Origins of the Nemean games
tied to a tragic death of a infant mortal, Opheltes (prince of Nemea) is renamed Archemoros
When and who established the Nemean games?
573 BC; Kleoni (and argos) strong associations with Zeus and Olympia
What kind of site was Nemea and the facilities of the Nemean games?
A remote inter-state cult in sheep-herding fields; no permanent residents; there was a temple of Zeus
What were the Hellenistic rebuilding of Nemea?
New temple of Zeus; Bath complex; and Xenon, or "hotel"
A room connected to the tunnel (locker room)
Closely resembles the Olympic program of events
What is the complicated history of the Nemean games?
violent, man-made destruction (sacrilegious); games moved to Argos and come under Argive control (Spartan war therefore Argos declares truce); games are restored at Nemea; games shifted permanently back to Argos "alternative" (athletes attending this event were sold into slavery
Why was there likely to be a chariot race in the Nemean games?
Due to the presence of the hippodrome
What are the three age categories for the Nemean games?
boys, youths and men
Gymnastic events were most competitive at the Nemean games. Why?
Because in order to participate in the Olympic games, you have to prove your self first at the Nemean games.
There was no musical contests until the Hellenistic era at the Nemean games.
Why compete in the Panhellenics? What are the benefits?
Together with the crowns goes a reputation; crowns are a token or symbol of arete. Material benefits- seats of honor, free rent, free meals for life, sometimes statues.
in honor of a victory (epi-in honor of; nike-a victory)
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