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Beth Anderson's Extra Credit due on 3/26/10 on the heart

protects/anchors/prevents overfilling with blood

2 functions of fibrous pericardium


the study of the normal heart and diseases associated with it


the heart is located in a ________ cavity, which is found in the ________ which is located within the _______ cavity


medial cavity space between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column

2/3, left

approximately _____ of the hearts mass lies to the ______ of the mediasternal line


the heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the what

fibrous pericardium

loose fitting superficial part of pericardium

serous pericardium

deep to fibrous pericardium; a thin, slippery, two-layer serous membrane

visceral layer

lines external heart surface

pericardial cavity

located between the two layers of serous pericardium, is filled with a thin layer of pericardial fluid

pericardial fluid

pericardial cavity is filled with what

reduce friction

function of pericardial fluid


external layer of the heart


list 3 layers of heart wall


inner layer of heart wall


visceral layer of serous pericardium


smooth, slippery texture to outermost surface


_____% of heart is cardiac muscle


layer of heart; cardiac muscle


smooth lining for chambers of heart, valves, and continuous with the lining of large blood vessels

chambers of heart/valves/lining of blood vessels

where is endocardium found


how many chambers does the heart have

interatrial septum

the 2 atria are separated from each other by what

interventricular septum

the 2 ventricles are separated from each other by what


a solid structure that separates two cavities

anterior interventricular sulcus

marks the anterior position of the septum separating right and left ventricles

posterior interventricular sulcus

provides similar landmarks as anterior interventricular sulcus on the posterior side


the thickness of the ________ of the 4 chambers varies according to the function of each chamber

atria walls

are thin because they deliver blood to the ventricles

ventricle walls

are thinner because they pump blood greater distances

thinner, lungs

the right ventricle walls are _____ than the leaft because they pump blood into the _______, which are nearby and offer very little resistance to blood flow


the left ventricle walls are ______ because they pump blood through the body where the resistance to blood flow is greater


the 2 upper chambers of the heart are called what


small earlike projections, extend anteriorly from the atria and help to increase atrial volume

interatrial septum

bears a shallow depression that marks the spot where the foramen ovale existed in the fetal heart

fossa ovalis

shallow depression on interatrial septum

foramen ovale

the fossa ovalis marks the spot where the _____ ______ existed in the fetal heart


atria function primarily as what

superior vena cava/inferior vena cava/coronary sinus

list 3 major veins entering the right atrium

superior vena cava

returns blood from the regions superior to the diaphragm

inferior vena cava

returns blood from regions below the diaphragm

coronary sinus

returns blood from the myocardium of the heart

tricuspid valve

blood flows through which valve from right atria to right ventricle

left atrium

forms most of the base of the heart

4 pulmonary veins

what returns blood from the lungs

bicuspid valve

valve between left atria and left ventricle

left atrioventricular, mitral, bicuspid

list 3 names of bicuspid valve


the two lower chambers of the heart

left ventricle

dominates the hearts posterior inferior surface


major pumping chambers of the heart

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