Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care

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Terms in this set (...)

Emergency Area
should be centrally located, facilitate assessment and treatment, equipment and drug inventory checked frequently
Minimum Requirements for Emergency
oxygen, suction, electrical supply, lighting, and a crash cart
Crash Cart Requirements
establish airway, venous access, emergency drugs, and dose chart
Fluid Therapy
maintain hydration, replace fluid loses, maintain IV access and med administration, treatment of shock or hypoproteinemia, increase urine output, correct acid-base electrolyte abnormalities, and nutritional support
Crystalloid Fluids
isotonic; contain water with sodium or glucose (25% remain in vascular space after one hour)
Colloid Fluids
expand vascular volume; contain high-molecular weigh particles, intravascular remain in space longer (hetastarch)
Overhydration
coughing, tachypnea, respiratory distress, nasal discharge, and chemosis
ABC Protocol
A: airway
B: breathing
C: cardiac
Methods of Oxygen Supplementation
mask, blowby, nasal cannula, and O2 cage
Hemothorax
blood in the abdomen
Pneumothorax
fluid in the abdomen
Quick Evaluation
1. thoracic auscultation
2. mm color and CRT
3. femoral and artery pulse
Corticosteroids
reduce inflammation
Spinal Trauma
complete nero exam, spinal shock for 24 hours, palpation of spine, tendon reflexes
Technician Role
evaluate, communicate, treatment, prevention
Pain
vocalization, depression, anorexia, hypotension, abnormal postures
DIC
disseminated intravascular coagulation-vicious cycle of clotting and bleeding
DIC Causes
trauma, pancreatitis, heatstroke, cancer, liver disease, anemia.
DIC Treatment
fluids, oxygen, blood products, and anticoagulants
Hypovolemic Shock
most common, caused by bleeding dehydration, or fluid loss
Distributive Shock
misdistribution of blood flow, trauma, heatstroke, anaphylaxis
Cardiogenic Shock
heart failure, or cardiac arrhythmia
Septic Shock
extensive tissue damage from trauma,
Treatment of Shock
dogs: 90ml/kg/hr
cats: 45-60ml/kg/hr