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Terms in this set (28)
Name three ways in which Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe.
Trade. Italian artists and scholars went north. The printing press quickly spread new ideas.
Were the printing press or trade networks more important in spreading Renaissance ideas? Explain your answer.
The Printing Press: It made books much more accessible.
Explain the meaning of the description of William Shakespeare as "not of an age, but for all time."
His works are timeless and are still appreciated as much as the day they were first penned.
How did Durer influence German painting?
He incorporated the techniques of Italian Renaissance with those of the Flemish Schools.
What was new in the subject matter of Northern Renaissance painting?
It focused on people as they really were.
Describe some of the differences between Italian and northern Renaissance painting.
ITALIAN RENAISSANCE: It tried to capture the beauty of the Greek and Roman gods. It used realism and perspective. It used mythological scenes. NORTHERN RENAISSANCE: It was more realistic. It showed people as they were. It had a love for details. It used oils for more vivid colors. It used scenes from everyday life.
How did Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe?
Ideas were exchanged through trade. Artists and scholars traveled between Italy and the Northern Renaissance sites. The printing press allowed easier bookmaking. Ideas spread through these books more easily. Advances in Printing.
Why was Gutenberg's printing press such an important invention?
New ideas spread. More people learned to read.
What other factors contributed to a weakening of the power of the Church in the 1500s?
High taxes on the middle class and peasants. The rise of nationalism over Church.
What criticisms did Martin Luther have of the Catholic Church?
He criticized the power of the pope. He criticized the wealth of the church. The selling of indulgences.
Which Protestant reformer preached the doctrine of predestination?
Why did Zwingli's followers wish to form an alliance with the Lutherans?
He thought a united front would be more effective in the battle against the entrenched Catholic Church.
Based on the response to Henry VIII's break with Rome, what was likely to be the future relationship between the church and England? Explain your answer.
This set the stage for a direct and indirect battle between the Pope and the current and future leaders of England.
Record the major reforms brought about by each reformer.
LUTHER: He began the Reformation Era with his 95 theses. Zwingli: He offered up a theocracy. CALVIN: He advocated for predestination and the strict laws that came with a theocracy. KNOX: He brought Protestantism to Scotland. THE ANABAPTISTS: They promoted adult rebaptism.
What conditions led to the Protestant Reformation?
The Church's financial corruption. Immorality in the Church. Abuse of power.
How are the subjects of the two woodcut illustrations on page 451 related?
Both sketches deal with leaders. The difference is their attitudes toward their followers.
What details in each of the woodcut illustrations show how Jesus and Pope Leo X view themselves and live their lives?
Jesus is on His knees washing the feet of His disciples. The Pope is sitting high above his visitors on a throne. The visitors are kissing the Pope's feet.
What is the overall message of the pair of woodcut illustrations?
The Pope has departed from the original teachings of Jesus.
Describe the ideas of Martin Luther and how they contradicted the church's teachings of his day.
They express that God's grace cannot be won by good works, but by faith. The leader of the Church is Jesus and not the Pope. People can interpret Scripture for themselves. Church practices should come from the Bible. It challenged Church practices and the authority of the Pope.
How did Calvin approach to reform differ from Luther's?
Calvin created a religious government called a theocracy. It levied strict laws. It controlled people's lives.
How did the ideas of reformers who came after Luther differ from those of Luther?
Some of these ideas were more radical. This included predestination. This included theocracy.
What city was the center of the Calvinist movement?
Why is King Henry VIII a key figure of the Reformation?
Despite his prominent role in the Catholic Church, he broke away from the Catholic Church for completely selfish reasons.
Which Protestant movement spread to the largest area, according to the map on page 454?
What caused the Reformation to spread to England?
The selfish desire of King Henry VIII to annul his marriage.
What were some characteristics of Renaissance writers' work?
It expressed humanist ideas. It expressed scientific knowledge. It expressed realistic experience. It expressed social conditions.
How did northern artists adapt Italian techniques to their own subject matter?
It showed a more realistic view of humanity.
How did northern Renaissance artwork differ from that of Italian artists?
It depicted everyday objects. It showed people as they actually were.
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