Tragedy of the Commons
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Terms in this set (105)
Sustainable Developmentdevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generationsEnvironmental Justicerecognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental rightEndangered Species Actidentifies/protects threatened and endangered speciesLacey Actprohibits interstate transport of wild animals without federal permitEcotourisma form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecological areasRemediationcontainment, treatment or removal of contaminated groundwaterNichethe status of an organism within its environment and communityAutotrophorganism that makes its own foodHeterotrophan organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition; cannot make foodInterspecific Competitioncompetition between members of different speciesIntraspecific Competitioncompetition between members of the same speciesNet Primary Productivitythe rate at which biomass accumulates in an ecosystemGross Primary Productivitythe rate at which energy is produced in an ecosystemTotal Fertility Ratemeasures the number of children born per womanReplacement Fertility Ratethe average number of children that couples in a population must have to replace themselvesZero Population Growthwhen the birth rate equals the death rateDemographic Transitionthe general pattern of demographic change from high birth and death rates to low birth and death ratesExponential Growthoccurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant ratePopulation Densitynumber of individuals per unit areaDoubling Timethe time required for a population to double in sizeDemographythe scientific study of population characteristicsCrude Birth Ratethe number of live births yearly per thousand people in a populationCrude Death Ratethe number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a populationPopulation Explosionthe rapid growth of the world's human population during the past centuryGeneration Timethe period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generationAciditya measure of how acid a solution is- the lower the pH, the greater this isGreen Manurea growing crop that is plowed under to enrich soilLD-50the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test populationBiomagnificationIncrease in concentration of certain chemicals (for example, heavy metals or fat-soluble pesticides) in successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or webBioaccumulationthe build up of a substance as it passes through a food chainRachel Carsonauthor of Silent Spring; helped influence environmental awareness and banning of DDTFood Irradiationthe treatment of foods with gamma radiation kill potentially harmful pathogens and increase shelf lifeCarcinogenany substance that produces cancerMutagenphysical or chemical agent that causes mutationsTeratogenany factor that can cause a birth defectEndocrine Disruptoracts as hormones and disrupts the reproductive processRadona radioactive gaseous elementBrownfieldsabandoned polluted industrial sites in central citiesLove Canaltoxic waste site in New York filled with drums of waste that leaked.Leachatea liquid that has passed through compacted solid waste in a landfillSuperfunda fund created by Congress in 1980 to clean up hazardous waste sitesMunicipal Solid Wastewaste produced by households and businessesIndustrial Solid Wasteproduced by mines, agriculture, and industriesBioremediationthe use of living organisms to detoxify and restoreSanitary Landfilla low area where waste is buried between layers of earthAsbestosmineral used extensively in insulation, causes respiratory issuesNOXnitrous oxides (created through burning fossil fuels); photochemical smogCFCschlorofluorocarbons; destroy ozone layerVOCsused in paints, stains; create ozoneParticulate Matterreduces visibility and respiratory irritationFecal Coliformindicator of sewage contaminationAlbedopercent of solar radiation reflected by a surfaceOzonea colorless gas; separated by "good ozone" and "bad ozone"Kyoto Protocolbinding commitments for the reduction of four greenhouse gases and two groups of gasesHypoxiclow level of oxygenAerosolssmall particles in atmospherePhotochemical Smogmixture of ozone and other chemicals; when pollutants reactIndustrial Smogsmog resulting from industry emissions/burning of fossil fuels.Nonpoint Sourcewidely spread source of pollution; not specificTurbineprovides mechanical energy to a generatorCrude Oilpetroleum that has not been processedControl Rodsfree neutrons, neutron-absorbing rods that help control the reaction by limiting free neutronsFuel Rodstubes containing uranium or other elements that release energy when fission occursStrip Miningrocks and soil are stripped from earths surface to expose the underlying materialsBiomassplant materials and animal waste used as fuelBiofuelsfuelscreated from the fermentation of plants or plant productsEthanola soure of energy that can be processed from plant materialNuclear Fuelfuel that can be used in nuclear reactors as a source of electricityNuclear Fissiona nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nucleiWilderness Actallowed Congress to set aside land for reservationSafe Water and Drinking Actprotects drinking water from toxic contamination through dischargeConvention on the Law of the Seadefines rights and responsibilities of nations in use of world's oceans; promotes peaceful use of oceansFood Security Acttax-related provisions; provides support for crops, energy, livestock, etc.Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Actgoverns sale/use of pesticides in the United StatesEmergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Actencourages response, requires reporting of toxic contaminationMontreal Protocolbanned production of aerosols, redution of CFCsTaylor Grazing Actprevents overgrazing/soil degredation; providers improvements, developmentFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Actregulates labeling of food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devicesConvention of International Trade in Endangered Speciesinternational legislation controlling exploitation of endangered speciesOccupational Safety and Healthprotects the welfare of people engaged in work or employmentClean Water Actcreated to make surface waters swimmable and fishable; set standards for waterClean Air Actemission standards for cars/limits for release of air pollutantsSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Actrequires coal strip mines to reclaim the landNitrogen FixationProcess of converting nitrogen gas into ammoniaAmmonificationdecomposers convert organic waste into ammoniaNitrificationprocess by which ammonia is converted to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrate (NO3-).Denitrificationconversion of nitrates into nitrogen gasAssimiliationinorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/ amino acids & protiensPhotosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2Cellular RespirationProcess that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygenCarbon Sinkplaces of carbon accumulation such as in large forests (organic compounds in glucose) or ocean sediments (calcium carbonate); carbon is thus removed from the carbon cycle for moderately long to very long periods of time.Phosphorous CycleNEVER IN AIR! Phosphorus originates in the environment as a component of rock; the rock breaks down releasing phosphorus into the soil and water (weathering); plants use phosphorus from the soil to make organic compounds; when organisms die, decomposers break down the bodies and return the phosphorus to the soil.red tideAn algal bloom that occurs in salt watercultural eutrophicationhuman-induced increase in nutrients & algal blooms, often resulting from nitrate or phosphate pollutionsulfur cycleSulfur cycles from rocks to water to air. Most of the earth's sulfur is stored underground in rocks and mineral and buried deep under ocean sediments. Sulfur can also enter the atmosphere from several natural resources: sulfur dioxide from volcanoes. Particles of sulfate salts enter the atmosphere from sea spray, dust storms and forest fires. Human effects: burning coal and oil, refining oil, and producing some metal from ores add sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere.

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