Genetics

Vocabulary for genetics unit
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DNA
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Located in the nucleus of a cell. Contains all genes an organism needs.
GENE
Unit of inherited information in DNA
MITOSIS
Process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei. Makes identical body cells to allow organisms to grow and repair tissue.
MEIOSIS
Process by which cells divide twice to produce haploid gametes (sperm and egg).
CHROMOSOME
Condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
HAPLOID
Having a single set of chromosomes
DIPLOID
Having two homologous (matching) sets of chromosomes
KARYOTYPE
Display of a person's 46 chromosomes
PEDIGREE
A family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait in a family
ALLELE
An alternative form of a gene (flavors)
GENOTYPE
The genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles
PHENOTYPE
The observable traits of an organism. How each gene is expressed.
HYBRID
Offspring of two different true-breeding "XX" and "xx" varieties. Results in heterozygous genotypes like "Xx"
PUREBRED
Identical (dominant or recessive), true-breeding alleles. "XX" or "xx"
HETEROZYGOUS
Having different alleles for a gene (hybrid).
HOMOZYGOUS
Having identical alleles for a gene (purebred)
DOMINANT
Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait. Indicated by a capital letter.
RECESSIVE
An allele that can be masked by a dominant gene form. Indicated by a lowercase letter.
COMPLETE DOMINANCE
A kind of dominance where the dominant allele completely masks the effect of the recessive allele in heterozygous (ie. Rr= Red phenotype) condition.
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
When one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a blend of the dominant and recessive (ie. Rr= Pink phenotype) phenotypes.
CODOMINANCE
An inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct traits of both alleles (ie. Rr= red and white striped phenotype)
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