DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Located in the nucleus of a cell. Contains all genes an organism needs.
Unit of inherited information in DNA
Process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei. Makes identical body cells to allow organisms to grow and repair tissue.
Process by which cells divide twice to produce haploid gametes (sperm and egg).
Condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
Having a single set of chromosomes
Having two homologous (matching) sets of chromosomes
Display of a person's 46 chromosomes
A family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait in a family
An alternative form of a gene (flavors)
The genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles
The observable traits of an organism. How each gene is expressed.
Offspring of two different true-breeding "XX" and "xx" varieties. Results in heterozygous genotypes like "Xx"
Identical (dominant or recessive), true-breeding alleles. "XX" or "xx"
Having different alleles for a gene (hybrid).
Having identical alleles for a gene (purebred)
Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait. Indicated by a capital letter.
An allele that can be masked by a dominant gene form. Indicated by a lowercase letter.
A kind of dominance where the dominant allele completely masks the effect of the recessive allele in heterozygous (ie. Rr= Red phenotype) condition.
When one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a blend of the dominant and recessive (ie. Rr= Pink phenotype) phenotypes.
An inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct traits of both alleles (ie. Rr= red and white striped phenotype)