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Terms in this set (33)
Define animism and animatism.
animism: belief that nature is enlived or engerized by distinct personalized spirit beings seperable from bodies
animatism: belief that nature is enlived or engerized by an impersonalspiritual force or supernatural which manifest in a special place, thing, creature
What are the main characteristics of culture?
It is learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated, and dynamic
Define ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. How are they viewed in anthropology
Cultural relativism: the idea that must suspennd judgment of other people's practices to understand them in their own cultural terms.
Define the Barrel Model of Culture and its components.
Superstructure: worldview: self, society, and world
Social: organization in a society
Infra: economic base
Enviroment: natural resources
Define, compare and contrast: phonology, phonemes, morphology & morphemes.
Phonology: the study of language sounds
Phonemes: the smallest units of sound that makes a difference in the meaning in a language
Morphology: the study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language, including the guidelines for verb tense, tense, pluralization and compound
Morphemes: the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language . They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning but have no meaning by themselves.
What do some anthropologists predict to happen to the number of languages still spoken in the world today by the year 2100?
They will disappear
Define sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics & linguistic determinism.
sociolinguistics: the study of the relationship between language and society through examining how social categories such as age, gender, ethnicity, religion, occupation, and class influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech
ethnolinguistics: a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other
What are tonal languages and are most languages in the world of this type?
Languages in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning. 1/3 or 70% of the world use it.
Define cultural adaptation and cultural evolution.
adaptation: a complex of ideas ,activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive in their environment
evolution: cultural change over time
How do cultures evolve over time?
What was the Neolithic revolution and how did it change social & economic life for humans?
the domestication of plants and animals by peoples and animals with stoned based technologies
Compare and contrast food-foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, agriculture and industrialization. In what order did these progress? What were the causes of evolution to the next stage?
Food foraging: hunting fishing and gathering
horticulture: crops with simple tools
pastoralism: domestication of animals
(invention of new tools/technology)
How did the available technologies change for each period?
they required less labor/hours
What is swidden farming? What is it more energy efficient than modern farming methods used in developed countries?
(slash and burn) where vegetation is is cut, the slash is burned and thr crops are planted among the ashes
What is the Kula Ring? How is trade carried out through out?
What is the "informal economy"?
What is the "Shariah Law"?
informal economy: a network of people producing and circulating marketable commodities,labor, and services that various escape government control.
Compare and contrast endogamy and exogamy.
endo: marriage within a particular group of individulas
exo: marriage outside the group
In which types of societies is polygyny common and why?
Asia and Africa for food producing societies, wages,
Why are woman to woman marriages among the Nandi beneficial for this society and
what advantages are there?
Compare and contrast matrilocal and patrilocal residences.
matrilocal: wifes mothers house
patrilocal: husbands father's house
Define, compare and contrast: band, tribe, chiefdom and state. How are these different in terms of membership, government, economy and society?
band: group that may split into smaller extended family and are politically independent
tribe: unifying factors that share ancestry, identity,culture, language, and territory
chiefdom: under a single ruler
What is restorative justice?
What is a revitalization movement?
social movements for radical culture reform in response to widespread social disruption and collective feelings of great stress and despair
Compare and contrast religion with spirituality.
religion: ceremonial practices people try to interpret and/or influence aspects of the universe
spirituality: individual distinguished from material matters
What is a pantheon and where is it common?
pantheon: all the gods and goddess of a people
most common in Hinduism
Compare and contrast: Priest/priestess with shaman.
priests/preistess: a full time religious specialists who perform sacred rituals and meditate between fellow humans and divinites
shaman: a person who enters an altered state of consciousness, at will, to contact and utilitze an ordinary hidden reality to acwuire knowledge and power to help others
What is the Shamanic Complex?
What is modernization and how does it develop? What is the role of self-determination in modernization? What are the five subprocesses?
What are the trends towards a global transnational culture?
Define, compare and contrast hard power with soft power.
hard power: power that coerces others and is backed up by military/force
soft power: co-opts, backed up with persuasion
How is witchcraft in the book defined and what types of functions does it provide?
witchcraft: magical rituals intended to cause misfortune or inflict harm
What is structural violence and what are its associated problems?
economic and political forces hand in hand
What are some of the major reactions to globalization?
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