History England and France
Terms in this set (121)
England Absorbs Waves of Invaders
-invaders from various regions in Europe landed on english shores
-angles and saxons stayed creating Angle-Saxon Culture
-Britain was battered by raids of Danish Vikings
-special prayer said "God deliver us from the fury of the Northmen"
-Only Alfred the Great managed to turn back viking invaders
What did Alfred the Great and his successors gradually do?
-gradually the angle-saxons united the kingdom calling it the "land of the angles"
-angles were early germanic tribes
What did Danish king canute do?
-conquered england, molding vikings and angle-saxons into one people
What did edward do?
-took the throne (descendant of Alfred the Great)
-he died without heir, leaving disaster for throne
What did king edwards death cause?
-one last invasion, the norman conquest
The Norman Conquest
-invader william, duke of normandy, became known as William the Conquerer
-because he took throne as he was edwards cousin and invaded England with a norman army
how did normandy get its name?
-french territory ruled by vikings
normans descended from vikings but spoke french
who was Williams rival?
-Harold Godwinson, anglo-saxon who claimed the throne
-these two groups the Normans and Anglo-saxons fought battle
Battle between anglo-saxons and normans?
battle of hastings
who won battle of hastings?
The normans after an arrow hit Harold in the eye
After the Battle of Hastings what happened?
-william declared all land his personal property
-kept 1/5 for himself
-english lords who supported harold lost land
-then granted 200 fiefs to supporters of himself
-laid foundation of centralized government in england
England's Evolving Government
Over next centuries, English tried to achieve two goals
-hold and add to french lands
-strengthen power over nobles and the church
Where did William the Conquerors descendants own land?
-William the Conquerors descendant's owned land both in normandy and england
The english king Henry the second married who?
-married Eleanor of Aquitaine for land from france called Aquitaine
-added this land to lands already inherited by William the conqueror
Juries and Common Law
-strengthened royal justices by sending royal judges to every part of england at least once a year
- settled lawsuits,
-introduced use of jury
what was an english jury?
group of loyal people, usually 12 neighbors
what did rulings of englands royal judges form?
(principles of english common law are basis for many english-speaking countries)
How did henry (williams descendent) lose power?
henry succeeded first by his son richard the lionhearted, hero of the third crusade
How did john become king?
-when richard died his younger brother John took the throne
-failed as a military leader, earning nickname John Softsword
-he lost normandy and all lands in northern france to french under philip augustas
What was john like?
-cruel to subjects
-tried to steal money
When was magna Carta created?
when nobles wanted basic political rights, document
-no taxation without representation, jury trial, protection of the law
when did The Model Parliament come into play?
during king Edward's reign
Why was the model parliament created?
when king edward 1 needed to raise taxes for a war
How did edward do so?
called for two burgesses from every self governing town and two knights from every county to serve as a parliament
Who came to meetings?
knights, burgesses, bishops, lords
What was the purpose of the model parliament?
To meet whenever a tax was needed
Two groups of model parliament?
House of lords- Nobles and Bishops (lord noble shops)
House of commons- Knights and burgesses (common nights and burgers)
What did the model parliament do like the magna carta?
Provided check on royal power
also weakened great lords
What happened after the breakup of charlemagnes empire?
French counts and dukes ruled their lands independently under the feudal system
Who took over after charlemagnes?
Hugh Capet- a duke from middle of france
How were the capets as rulers?
Hugh capet, and his descendants were all weak rulers
What favored the capetian dynasty
What did capetian kings do?
Tighten their grip on strategic areas-uniting france
Philip the second Expands his power
(augustus whom john lost land to)
-tripled land by gaining french territory
-became more powerful then his vassals
-collected kings taxes
What did louis the 9th do with government?
After his death what did louis become?
He created what? which did what?
A french appeal court which weakened feudal ties
Who was Phillip in an argument with? why?
pope, because pope wouldnt allow priests to pay taxes to the king
How did Phillip win?
invited commoners to meeting
What were church leaders and Great lords known as?
First estate and second estate
Who were the commoners, wealthy landholders, or merchants in the council?
What was the entire meeting called?
What did it help to do?
Increase royal power against nobility
What were english and french slowly tying to achieve?
What were first steps toward democracy
common law, court systems
-commoners helping out
When william the conqueror battled Harold (alfred descendent) to gain french land normandy. Normans won after Harold was hit in the eye with a spear. 1066
Hundreds Year War (2-11)
A war between the British and the French over economics, trade, land, and power struggles.
What was the trade problem?
Trade was with Flanders, French, and English over beer, wine, and textiles. Flanders was a vassal to the french king so the French wanted to take it over. This would mess up trade routes so the English fought back.
What was the power struggle?
Marriage. Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry the second (father of richard and john) and gave french land
Marriage. When Phillip the 4th died, his daughters son wanted the throne. Yet the cyllic law stated the heir couldn't be through female bloodline.
as a result of marriages
Why was the Hundreds Years War fought in France?
After the battle of Sluys, Englands navy proved to be stronger. There was no getting into the English Channel as the French navy was weaker.
Key achievements brought by Hundreds Year War?
-sense of nationalism
-end of feudal lifestyle
What was important about the hundreds year was
-sense of nationalism or country
Three main battles by french?
Agincourt, Poitiers, Crecy
Major Technology and why?
Knights who had been fighting all their lives could be shot by a soldier who had been training for a month.
Shoot longer distances
Great Schism? date?
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
The main problem causing the Great Schism?
Power struggle between pope and king
What lead up to the Great Schism?
-Pope Boniface-fighting with Phillip the 4th
pope in pisa and rome
yes avignon, rome, pisa
How to resolve
-Forced all three to resign after excommunicating each other
-Martin become pope
Chronology of RIse of England and France
Alfred the Great Hugh Capet
William the Conquerer Phillip 2nd
Henry 2nd Louis 4th
Richard the Lionhearted Phillip 4th
Alfred the Great
Combined Angle-saxons into one culture
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy-
-Claimed English Crown
-Took all land
-Gave supporters fiefs
-won battle of hastings
-married Eleanor Aquitane
-strengthened royal courts
-Introduced Juries to courts
Son of Henry, brother of richard
-lost normandy and all Northern French lands
-Signed Magna Carta (reluctantly)
-Created Model Parliament
-house of lords (nobles and bishops), house of commons (burgesses, knights)
-Established royal authority
Began Capetian Dynasty
-Made Paris a city of power
-set aside trade routes
-increased French territory
-Established royal officials called bailiffs
-Become more powerful than his vassals
-Made a saint after his death
-Created French appeal courts
-Fought with popes
-added 3rd estate to estates general (for commoners)
-gained support of people
-royal check on nobility
What steps were taken to centralize Government
-Alfred the Great and Danish King Canute merging Angle Saxons and VIkings
-William the Conqueror (1066) centralized feudalism
-Henry 2nd-married aquitaine-land
-Hugh Capet- Paris, seine, local meeting place
-Phillip 2nd- established bailiffs to collect taxes, more powerful than vassals
-Louis 9th- courts, weakens feudal ties
What steps were taken to democratize Government
-Magna Carta 1215- John Softsword
ideas: king subject to law
-no taxation without representation
-rights from law
-common law: courts, collecting taxes, settling law disputes, strengthening royal justices, introducing jury, punishing crime
-estates general 1, 2, 3 (added by phillip 4th)
1) church officials
2) great lords
Which king and pope fought against each other?
King Phillip the 4th and Pope Boniface
What happened to the pope after they fought?
The pope was kidnapped
Where did king phillip the 4th move the pope to?
How long did the papacy reside there?
After 69 years what happened regarding popes?
Two popes were appointed which began the great schism
What was the great schism
arguments about which man holding the position of pope was the true pope
The what was responsible for ending the Great Schism?
council of constance
How did it do so?
appointed pope Martin the 5th and forced the other three popes to resign
What people started doubting the pope
Wycliffe and Hus
What did these men do?
raised questions about the role of the popes and preached that the bible should be seen as higher authority
what did they suffer as a result?
death and punishments (excommunication)
What battle determined the fact that the english what could not be crossed?
Why couldnt it be crossed?
because the english had a stronger navy
What did this do?
kept english from not being invaded
who had superior technology during the hundreds year war?
What 3 major battles did they win?
Agincourt, Crecy, poitiers
What was the best new weapon?
who thought they had the right to take the french throne
king edward the 3rd
after whose death
king of phillip 4th
why did he think this?
because his mother, isabel, was the daughter of the french king
however lawayers in france used what law?
what did the law state?
that the throne could not be passed down the female blood line
The young french maiden named who was able to rally french forces?
joan of arc
who did she hear?
voices of angels and saints
she hoped to help who?
charles the second regain the throne of france
who was she captured and imprisoned by?
who was she guarded by? and what prison was she in?
men, military (male)
when she wore what she was accused of what?
male clothes, cross-dressing
what did people think she was?
later she was burned at what and became a what?
At the end of the war what developed in france?
england was later faced with what?
civil wars and peasant uprisings
downfall of feudal warfare signaled the end of feudal warrior the?
Now kings used armies made up of what with what weapons?
soldiers with longbows
When did the black plague break out?
people believe it was brought by boat to where?
people feeling city of caffa on black sea
how many people did the plague kill
What were three of the stories as to why the plague occurred?
Jews, God hated them, punishment for sins, earthquakes (natural disasters)
boils, chills, fever, smell
some though it was in air they used what to help?
doctors often wore what?
other cures for helping the disease were..?
sucking the blood, heated cups, fire
what was the group that beat themselves?
who was ultimately blamed?