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40 terms

Plant Tissues

Ch. 25
STUDY
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root system
plant structures that typically grow downward and outward through the soil; absorb water and nutrients, anchor plants
shoot system
include stems, leaves and reproductive shoots called flowers; grw upward and outward
meristems
regions where cells continuously divide
ground tissue
tissue that has basic functions such as food and water storage
vascular tissue
tissue system that threads through ground tissue and delivers water and solutes throughout the plant
apical
meristems in roots or tips; lengthening; division, elongation, differentiation <--life cycle, secondary width associated
lateral
cylindrical arrays of cells that form in cells or roots, primary
dicot
has two cotyledons, branched veins, flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5, 3 pores, vascular bundles organized
monocot
has one cotyledon, parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3, one pore, vascular bundles scattered
cotyledons
leaf like structures that are commonly called seed leaves
parenchyma
ground tissue cell that makes up primary growth of roots; storage secretion and other tasks are its function
collenchyma
ground tissue cell with a strong, flexible cell wall; helps support larger plants
sclerenchyma
ground tissue cell with an extremely thick, rigid cell wall that makes ground tissue tough and strong, fibers and sclereids
sclereids
structurally support mature tissues
fibers
long, tapered cells in the vascular tissues of some stems and leaves
vascular tissues
include xylem and phloem, have long conducting cells that are often sheathed in fibers and parenchyma
xylem
conducts water and dissolved mineral ions, made of interconnected vessel members and tracheids who are dead at maturity
phloem
conducts sugars and other organic ions, made od sieve tube members who are alive at maturity
epidermis
The 1st dermal tissue to form on a plant is a...
cuticle
secreted waxy coating on outside of plant that helps protect from water loss, and deflect attacks by some pathogens
stoma
singular, a tiny gap across the epidermis, made up of guard cells and moves apart to allow light and to allow transpiration
periderm
tissue that replaces the epidermis in woody stems and roots
bud
undeveloped shoot of mostly meristematic tissues, often protected by bud scales (modified leaves); start of new stems, leaves, and flowers
vascular bundles
multistranded cords that thread lengthwise through a ground tissue system of primary and lateral shoots
mesophyll
a photosynthetic parenchyma, composed of palisade and spongy types
root hairs
tiny hair like extensions that increase the surface area of the root
vascular cylinders
composed of phloem and xylem, and one or more layers of cells called the pericycle
taproot system
root system thatconsists of a primary root and its lateral branchings, longer concerning suface area
fibrous root system
root system which is shallower and wider concerning surface area
vascular cambium
lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
cork cambium
lateral meristematic tissue that produces the outer covering of stems, especially in trees
bark
made up of periderm and secondary phloem; tough protective covering of the woody stems and roots of trees and other woody plants
heartwood
older mature xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts water (heartwood, sapwood, vascular cambium, bark [secondary phloem, periderm{cork cambium, cork, new parenchyma}])
sapwood
secondary growth of functioning xylem in the center of a tree
sap
a watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through the vascular system of a plant
growth rings
layer of wood a tree adds during a growth season, usually a year
dermal tissues
protects all exposed plant surfaces
transpiration
evaporation of water out of stoma(guard cells)
root pressure
draws a limited amount of water toward roots
leaf vein
surrounds vascular cylinder, contains xylem, singular is one bundle surrounding vascular cylinder which contains both xylem and phloem

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