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Psychology Final Test Ch. 9 - Ch. 16
Terms in this set (120)
___ development involves growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills,and health & wellness
Which concept refers to the persistent difference in grades, test scores, and graduation rates that exists among students of different ethnicities, races, and sexes.
A. - Achievement gap
The concept conservation refers to_____?
A.- Knowing that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added.
Crawling, walking, writing, dressing, naming colors, speaking in sentences, and starting puberty are all examples of _____?
B.- Developmental milestones
Stage theories hold that the sequence of development is_____?
What does nature referred to in the nature V.S. nurture debate?
C. - genes and biology
Sigmund feud believed that personality develops ______.
A. - During early childhood
What does nurture refer to in the nature VS. Nurture debate?
B. - environment and culture
Grasping the toy, writing with a pencil, and using a spoon are all examples of____ motor skills.
A.- Fine Motor Skills
During the blank stage, children understand events and analogies logically, And they preform simple mathematical operations.
A. - concrete operational
Jory, A six-year-old, is picking out a card for his mothers birthday. He picks the card with a picture of lightning McQueen, reasoning that since he loves cars his mother does too. What does this exemplify?
B. - Egocentrism
Jules is participating in the strange situation experiment. When his mother returns, he freezes, and then Behaves erotically. In fact, he runs away from his mother. What kind of attachment is this?
B. - Disorganized
Which of the following is a development issue children face during the sensorimotor stage?
D. - stranger anxiety
Which of the following is not a developmental issue children face during the pre-operational stage?
C. - object permanence
Which of the following is a developmental issue children face during the formal operational stage?
______ motivation arises from external factors or rewards.
A. - Extrinsic
_______ motivation is based on internal feelings rather than X ternal rewards.
According to the Schachter-Singer two factor theory of emotion, emotions consist of two factors:_____.
B. -physiological and cognitive
Otto is so driven to become a school psychologist that he spends every night studying. This sentence describes the wants or needs that direct behavior toward a goal, also called _____.
An infant sucking is a good example of a(n)______.
C. - instinct
Which of the following exemplifies intrinsically motivated behavior?
A.-Attending a mosque because you believe it is the right thing to do.
Which of the following exemplifies extrinsically motivated behaviors?
A. - babysitting your younger brother in order to receive your parents approval.
Which of the following is the best example of a habit?
A.- chewing on your hair to relieve stress.
Self-worth, accomplishments, and confidence represents the _____levels of needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
According to research, the need for ________ encourages Mr. Blutarski to complete a second PhD., so he can add another accomplishment to his already long list.
Which of the following are good examples of security level of needs in Maslows hierarchy you of needs?
D. Safety and employment
Research shows that receiving some sort of extrinsic reinforcement for engaging in behaviors that we enjoy leads to those behaviors ______.
C.-No longer providing the same enjoyment
Which of the following is a way that anorexia nervosa is different from bulimia nervosa?
B. - I don't Rex year is associated with starvation and bulimia is associated with binge eating.
What is the main idea in drive theory?
C.- Deviation from homeostasis create physiological needs.
Some studies show that _________ motivation maybe not entirely vulnerable to the affects of extrinsic reinforcements; in fact, reinforcements such as verbal praise might actually increase________ motivation.
The ______ inkblot Test employs A series of symmetrical inkblots cards that are presented to a client by psychologist in an effort to reveal the person is unconscious desire fear and struggles.
What is the developmental task of Eric Erickson's second stage of psychosexual development, in which a sense of independence in many task develops?
A.- autonomy vs. shame/doubt.
Cognitive processes refers to all characteristics previously learned:_______.
B.-beliefs and expectations
Jessica believes that she succeeds in high school because she works hard, earned a place on the basketball team because she practiced constantly, I'm cooks well because she takes cooking classes. Julian Rotter would say that jessica has ______.
B. And intern locus of control
Kim believed he failed his math class because the test was too hard, passed his psychology class because the professor past every student in the class, and didn't get the internship because the manager didn't like him. Julian Rotter would say that Kim has_______.
B.- An external locus of control
Which of the following clearly influenced sigmund Freud's theory of development?
A. Climate of sexual repression
Which of the following was one of Alfred Adler's main contribution to personality theories?
B.-suggesting that are birth order shapes our personality
What was the main idea behind Eric Erickson's theory of psychosocial development?
A. An individual's personality develops throughout the lifespan.
According to Carl Jung , Which of the following best served the goal of self realize Asian?
C. - balance between extroversion and introversion
What is the advantage to applying learning approaches to the study of personality?
C.- They can be scientifically tested
What is the main idea of the behavioral perspective of personality?
C.- Personality is significantly shaped by the reinforcements and consequences outside of the organism.
Which statement summarizes the main idea of reciprocal determinism?
C.-our behaviors, cognitive process, and situational context all influence each other.
How are the principles of reciprocal determinism present in observational learning?
C.- personal factors determine which behaviors in the environment a person chooses to imitate.
Which question was central to the marshmallow test?
C.- would you be able to resist getting a small reward now in order to get a larger reward later?
Which of the following is not something the theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow have in common?
C.- Both theories. Focus on the personality formed infancy.
Who conducted the Stanford prison experiment?
Which type of persuasion involves logic Driven arguments using data and facts to convince people of an arguments worthiness?
Which statement about group think is correct?
B.-group members modify their opinions to match what they believe in the group consensus
Which statement about Sternberg's triangular theory of love is most accurate?
B.-there are three components of love: intimacy passion and commitment
What is a major problem with the original milligram study
B.-milligram lied to his respondent, making history borderline unethical.
Based on the discussion in your text, which of the following strategies would effectively reduce prejudice between groups?
B.-having groups meet under equal terms and cooperate on task
Which of the following strategies would effectively reduce racism?
D.-Teaching children to think independently and Challenge social norms That promote racism
When it comes to relationships, we expect to share thoughts, feelings, and ideas in a mutual exchange called?
Fatima generalizes that all men are irresponsible players, cheaters, and liars. When it comes to men, Fatima maybe applying _________ : Negative believes about individuals based solely on their membership in a group.
In California, undocumented immigrants are often blame for high unemployment in the state, although said to stick show that high unemployment is not related to the number of legal immigrants. In this example, illegal immigrants are victims of _______ : The act of blaming and out group when the in group experiences for station or is blocked from obtaining a goal.
Suppose you hate reality shows, but you pretend to like them in order to fit in, feel good, and be accepted by your friends, who are love reality shows. This is an example of________ social influences.
Which of the following is the best example of the foot in the door technique of persuasion?
C.-Getting your parents to agree to cut there smoking down by a few cigarette, then asking them to quit altogether.
Donna knows that drinking too much liquor is a costly habit that is bad for his health, but he continues to drink large amounts of liquor. He also thinks he is a smart person that makes good choices. Don feel some psychological discomfort from this contradiction, which is also a called?
Penny gets an acting job on Friday that she attributes to her good acting. She doesn't get the next acting job; therefore, she blames the casting director for not wanting to hire a woman. This is an example of ______.
C.- self-serving bias
Tom believes he is unable to stop gambling because his friends all gamble and are a bad influence; however, he believes that Barnaby is unable to stop gambling because Barnaby is addicted to gambling. This is an example of?
B.-actor observer bias
What is job analysis?
C.-Describing the task accurately
In job specification, what does the acronym KSAstand for?
D.-Knowledge, skills, abilities
The U.S. Equal employment opportunity commission is responsible for?
B.-Enforcing federal laws that make it legal to discriminate against a job applicant
Industrial organizational psychology he is a branch of psychology that studies
A.- compiling statistics about Gender pay gap.
A unique feature of industrial psychology is that it
A.- considers issues of Legality regarding discrimination in hiring
According to research, what kind of job interview is most successful at predicting job performance?
B.-interviews that are structured.
Halima is excellent at organizing events, but she is weak in delivering the opening address. She decides to focus on what she is good at and delegate the opening address to her immediate sub ordinate who excels in public speaking. Halima is practicing ______.
Hershel is strict , goal oriented manager. When his team achieve their daily productivity goals he rewards them with long lunches and bonus please. When his team falls behind, he extends the workday by an hour and cuts lunch by 15 minutes. What type of leader is Hershel?
Design teams for car manufactures create new vehicle models. What type of team does this exemplify?
The diagnostic team at the center of disease control exemplifies a _______ team.
A police or FBI swat team handling a hostage situation exemplifies a ______ team.
What is the primary contribution of water dill scott to industrial organizational psychology he? He was one of the first psychologist to?
A.-Apply psychology to advertising, management, and personnel selection
What does research suggests about gender diversity and team productivity?
A.-Gender balance teams perform better, as measured by sales and profits then predominately male teams.
Which of the following is a frequent trigger for a workplace environment?
B.-feeling of being treated unfairly, I'm just, or disrespectfully.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of strength-based management?
D.-Managers neglect improving their weakest mess and over using their strengths.
Which term refers to mental or behavioral effort used to manage problems relating to stress, including the cause and unpleasant feelings and emotion in produce?
Heather considers taking a new job. She focuses on the increased opportunities for promoting and the higher salary rather than her increase responsibilities; therefore, she views the new position as a _____ rather then a _____.
A.- challenge; distress
People who reach the ________ level of stress feel burned out; they are fatigued, exhausted, and their performance begins to decline.
A. - Distress
Noticing that you have difficulty concentrating during and after periods of prolonged stress exemplifies how stress can have a negative______ impact.
Developing stomach ulcers during a prolonged period of stress exemplifies how stress can have a negative______ impact.
Jake here's a bottle. When she turns around she sees a rattlesnake inches from her leg. Her pupils dilate her heart pounds and she begins to swell. This response is called the ______ response
C.-Fight or flight
Factory workers, supermarket cashiers, and short order cook are all examples of occupations with high levels of_____.
Taylor is a social worker. He's overworked, his caseload is overwhelming, and he no longer believes that what he does on a date with your business has any real impact or improves anyone's life. Taylor is probably suffering from?
B.-Job burn out
Brizan has just lost his job. He is proactive in trying to resolve this source of stress: he immediately uses the Internet to look up other jobs in his field and plans to eliminate nine essentials from his budget to make his savings last longer. Which type of copying approach is Brizan using?
C.- problem focused
Advice, guidance, encouragement, acceptance, emotional comfort, and financial help are all examples of?
D.- social support
Hans Selyes definition of stress is considered a response based definition because it conceptualizes stress chiefly in terms of the?
C.-Bodies physiological reaction to any demand that is placed upon it
Which of the following statements about the relationship between stress and performance is true?
C.- stress levels increase from low to moderate, performance also increases
Which of the following is a negative effect of extended cortisol released caused by chronic or Prolonged stress?
B.- the immune system is weekend
Hypertension is A major risk factor for heart disease because it?
A.- focuses the heart to pump harder, which puts more physical strain on the heart.
Which of the following is a reason that depression is associated with heart disease?
B.- Depression May increase the likelihood of living and unhealthy lifestyle, which increases the risk of heart disease
A physiological disorder is a _____.
A.- condition characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
Due to Dominique's obsessive compulsive disorder, she me?
D. - Wash your hands every 10 minutes throughout the day
Dr. Griffiths diagnosed Manuel with major depressive disorder because he?
A.- appears tearful to others and spends weeks at a time feeling sad, empty, and hopeless.
Veena's thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors are impaired to the point where she is unable to function normally in life. She experiences significant difficulties in many date today activities, such as holding a job, paying bills, grooming, maintaining personal hygiene, and sustaining relationships. Which of the following this order is Veena living with
Which of the following is an example of hopelessness theory?
A.-Rochelle has an expectation that terrible things will happen and there is nothing she can do about it--this leads her to become depressed.
Nathan has an over inflated and unjustified sense of self-importance. He is preoccupied with fantasies of success and believes that he is entitled to special treatment from others. Which of the following diagnoses accounts for Nathan's personality?
C.- Narcissistic personality disorder
Which of the following exemplifies a symptom of schizotypal personality disorder?
B.-Stella laughed when her dog died and cried while watching a funny movie.
Which of the following exemplifies a symptom of paranoid personality disorder?
D.- Rafe is extremely suspicious of the people around him and mistrusts them for no indentifiable reason
Egon can't pay attention in class. He is easily distracted, won't sit still, and displays poor impulsive control. The school counselor suggest that his parents take him to a doctor to have him assessed for ______.
B.- attention deficit hyper active disorder
Which of the following is a common characteristic of all anxiety orders?
B.-excessive, persistent fear and anxiety
Which of the following statements is true about obsessive compulsive disorder?
A.-It involves intrusive, unpleasant thoughts and repetitive behaviors.
Which of the following is a common characteristic of our dissociative disorders?
A.-Becoming split off, or dissociated, from one's core sense of self
Exhibiting a personality that ______ is common characteristics of all personality disorder.
A.-Differs markedly from the expectations of ones culture
Which of the following is a major risk factor for developing a social anxiety disorder?
What do obsessive compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder have in common?
D.-Repetitive thoughts and urges, as well as an uncontrollable need to engage in repetitive behavior and mental acts
Cultural competence is a therapist is understanding of, and attention to,______?
C.-Race, culture, and ethnicity in providing treatment.
Addiction is often viewed as an _______ disease.
What kind of family therapy involves the therapists guiding the therapy session and developing treatment plans for each family members specific problem?
Dr. Donner wants his client to learn to articulate thoughts that keep him from achieving their goals. Therefore, Dr. Banner increases their self awareness by focusing on their conscious thoughts. What kind of psychotherapeutic orientation is he using?
Kaz want to stop biting his nails, so he rubs a strong better piece under his nails to make his nails taste bad. What technique is Kaz using to stop biting his nails?
On the advice of her therapist, thora decides to treat her fear of heights by exposing herself to height using a stimulus hierarchy. Which form of therapy is she using?
Dr. Duncan is a therapist who works with man accused of domestic violence. Although it is difficult, she does her best to be non-judge mental during therapy session. Which aspect of client centered therapy is this?
D.-Unconditional positive regard
Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft are examples of?
Which of the following is a drug that can be used to treat attention deficit hyper activity disorder? (ADHD)
The amount of time in therapy depends on the needs of the client and the?
A.-Clients personal goals
Breach of confidentiality is a greater risk in _______ therapy.
A school counselor needs a support group for children whose parents have aids. The counselor focuses on defining aids , discussing treatment and side effects of treatment, and how the children can develop coping mechanisms. This exemplifies?
C.- psycho educational treatment
What is the emphasis in humanistic therapy?
B.- clients present and future
What principal underlies cognitive behavioral therapy?
D.- thoughts affect behavior
How his behavior therapy different from psychoanalysis?
B.-in behavioral therapy if therapist employees principles of learning to help claims change undesirable behaviors, last cycle analysis involves digging deeper into ones unconsciousness.
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