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What two things were the zenith of German success?

Collapse of Russia and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Who was the "real leader" of the German army?


What bolstered the Allies and made defeat imminent for the Germans?

arrival of American troops

the new govt. under Prince Max of Baden, asked for peace on the basis of the _______ that President Wilson had declared

Fourteen Points

Fourteen Points

no secret treaties, freedom of the seas, equality of trade, arms reduced, readjustment of colonial claims, evacuation of Russian territory and independent self-determination, Belgium sovereignty restored, France's borders restored and Alsace-Lorraine returned, Italy's borders readjusted, Austria-Hungary left to its own sovereignty, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro restored, Turkey assured sovereignty, independent Poland created, League of Nations

After William's abdication, the majority branch of the Social Democratic Party proclaimed a ____ to prevent their radical Leninsist wing from setting up a ____ govt.

republic, soviet

The American intervention in 1917 thrust the _______ into European affairs with a vengeance (hint: Lusitania)

United States

The collapse of the Russian ______ brought the _____ revolution and the reality of a great _______ state.

autocracy, Bolshevik, communist

T or F: As a result of WWI, Europe became the center of the world

false (it was no longer the center)

At the outbreak of WWI, the _________ was neutral.

Ottoman Empire

The _______ (military officers) took control of the Ottoman Govt, and were pro-German

Young Turks

The Young Turks entered the war on the _______ side


The British drove the Ottomans out of ________


(effect 1) The peace treaty signed in Paris in 1920 ________ the Ottoman Empire.


(effect 2) The peace treaty signed in Paris in 1920 put the ____ areas under the control of ____ and _____

Arab, Britain, France

(effect 3) _____ and _____ became British mandates

Iraq, Palestine

(effect 4) _____ and _____ became French mandates

Syria, Lebanon

Who rose to power in Turkey?

Mustafa Kemal, Ataturk, "Father of the Turks"

Under Ataturk, Turkey, despite being ______, became a _____ state and a force for _____

Muslim, secular, stability

Who were the "Big Four" representatives at the paris settlement?

Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando

____ was part of the Paris discussion, but _____ and _____ were excluded

Japan, Germany, Russia

The Big Four represented constitutional, generally _______ governments; ____ _____ had become a mighty force

democratic, public opinion

_____ and the intervention of ______ had transformed WWI into a moral crusade to achieve peace

propaganda, Wilson

The Fourteen Points set forth the right of nationalities to __________ as an absolute value


British and French had been told that ____ would pay for the war


Russia had been promised control of ____ in return for recognizing French claim to ____ and British control of ____

Constantinople, Alsace-Lorraine, Egypt

The greatest immediate threat to the peacemakers appeared to be _______

spread of Bolshevism (communism)

What was the notion of the Paris settlement?

"peace without victors"

What was Russia now called?

Soviet Union

These were territories that were legally administered under the auspices of the League of Nations, but were in effect ruled as colonies


What did Wilson propose as a new instrument for peace and justice, and its covenant was an essential part of the peace treaty?

League of Nations

T or F: The League of Nations was an international government.

False (it was NOT an intl. govt.; was a body of sovereign states)

The members of the LoN promised to submit to arbitration, and intl. court -

League Council

Why was the league unlikely to be effective?

no armed forces

The ______ of the League bound its members to " _____" the territorial integrity of all its members

covenant, respect and preserve

T or F: madates were discouraged from advancing toward independence

false (they were encouraged to indpendence)

T or F: Members of the League remained fully soverign and continued to pursue their national interests


In the West, the main territorial issue was the fate of ________


(effect 5) Effect on Germany's army (2)

disarmament, fleet reduced

(effect 6) Germany lost part of ______, and _______ was cut off from the rest of Germany

Silesia, East Prussia

(effect 7) The _______ disappeared entirely; although the Republic of ____ (cut off from Germany) was est.; as well as the kingdom of the Magyars, ______

Austro-Hungarian Empire (ottoman), Austria, Hungary

(effect 8) The Czechs of Bohemia and Moravia joined with the Slovaks and Ruthenians to form ______


(effect 9) The southern Slavs were united in the Kingdom of Serbs, a.k.a ______


(effect 10) Italy gained ___ and port of ____

Trentino, Trieste

(effect 11) Romania received ____ from Hungary and _______ from Russia

Transylvania, Bessarabia

(effect 12) _____ lost territory to Greece and Yugoslavia


(effect 13) _______ lost vast territories in the west


(effect 14) 5 new independent states

Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland

Perhaps the most debated part of the peace settlement dealt with _______

Germany's reparations

Word to describe Germany's promise to pay compensation "for all damages done to the civilian population of the Allies and their property."


To justify Germany's huge reparation payments, the Allies inserted the ______into the treaty, (which the Germans did not feel)

war guilt clause

T or F: The settlement at Paris was a peace without victors

false (it wasn't)

T or F: The settlement at Paris ended imperialism

false (it didn't; it attempted to only to promote the natl. interests of the winning nations)

The settlement at Paris violated principles of national ________ by leaving significant pockets of minorities outside the borders of their natl. homelands


T or F: The settlement at Paris was a Carthaginian peace (as Keynes called it)


T or F: The settlement at Paris resulted in German'y dismembering and ruin

false (it didn't)

The elimination of the ______ created serious problems, esp. economically.

Austro-Hungarian Empire

New borders and ______ separated ______ from manufacturing areas and producers from their markets.

tariff walls, raw materials

The great weakness of the peace was its ________________

failure to accept reality

It was left to _____ with no guarantee of support from Britain and US, to defend the new arrangements


Finland, Baltic states, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia were expected to be a ____ and help _____ (2)

barrier to westward expansion of Russian communism; revival of German power

The tragedy of the Treaty of Versailles was that it was not conciliatory enough to remove the desire for ______, or make ________________

revision; another war possible

Keyne's book "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" said that such a peace would bring ____ and ___ to Europe unless it was repudiated

economic ruin, war

Keyne's book "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" had what affect on the League of Nations?

British and US left League of Nations, not bound to defend France; France left to defend itself

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