Terms in this set (32)

  • Absolutism
    a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
  • Anarchism
    a political theory favoring the abolition of governments
  • Anti-Semitism
    policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
  • Chartism
    the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
  • New Imperialism
    Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers and the United States, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
  • Pan-Slavism
    A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
  • Communism
    a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
  • Conservatism
    a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
  • Racism
    discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
  • Empiricism - Scientific Revolution
    the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
  • Social Darwinism
    The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
  • Socialism
    a theory or system of social organization that advocates the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
  • Feminism
    the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
  • Humanism
    an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
  • Imperialism
    A policy in which a strong, often technologically or militarily strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
  • Liberalism
    A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
  • Marxism
    the economic and political theories of ______ __________and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
  • Mercantilism
    an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests. The country with the most wealth and a favourable balance of trade is the most powerful.
  • Nationalism
    love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
  • Nazism
    a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism, The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party encouraged this and it was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
  • Daoism
    Chinese philosophy based on the teachings of Laozi; taught that people should turn to nature and give up their worldly concerns
  • Confucianism
    the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
  • Legalism
    In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime
  • Animism
    Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
  • Federalism
    A system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments
  • Centralism
    denotes the concentration of a government's power into a centralized government. This takes away some of the powers of the states and puts more power into the hands of the executive leader
  • Feudalism
    A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
  • Buddhism
    practiced in Eastern civilizations, founded by Hindu prince Siddhartha Gautama (563 to 483 BCE), split into Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism with his death. Rejected caste system; advocated equality, can apply to most anyone, anywhere because it is not attached to a social structure.
  • Islam
    The word Islam, which when translated from Arabic, means "to submit to the will of Allah," is the youngest of the world's major religions, founded by Muhammed during th5 7th century. Worshippers of this monotheistic religion are known as Muslims, which means "one who submits to the will of Allah." The Islamic holy book is called the Qur'an.
  • Christianity
    Based around teachings of Jesus of Nazareth; sacred text is the Bible; actively tries to convert people. It appealed to lower classes and women because it promised eternal life; it profoundly affected world developments following Constantine's embrace of the religion.
  • Hinduism
    Began with Aryan invaders from central Asia to India, Vedas and Upanishads are sacred texts, is heavily intertwined with caste system, remains dominant religion in India today.
  • Colonialism
    the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people.