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the study of muscle


Thin sleeve of loose connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber
Allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers to reach each muscle fiber
Provides extracellular chemical environment for the muscle fiber and its associated nerve ending


Slightly thicker layer of connective tissue
Fascicles: bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium
Carry larger nerves and blood vessels, and stretch receptors


Fibrous sheath surrounding the entire muscle
Outer surface grades into the fascia
Inner surface sends projections between fascicles to form perimysium


Sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles or muscle groups from each other and the subcutaneous tissue


bridge the gap between muscle ends and bony attachment


tendon is a broad, flat sheet (eg: palmar aponeurosis)


connective tissue band that tendons from separate muscles pass under


bony attachment at stationary end of muscle


thicker, middle region of muscle between origin and insertion


bony attachment to mobile end of muscle


the effects produced by a muscle; to produce or prevent movement

Prime Mover (agonist)

Muscle that produces most of force during a joint action


muscle that aids the prime mover; stabilizes the nearby joint; modifies the direction of movement


opposes the prime mover; relaxes to give prime mover control over an action

Antagonistic Pairs

muscles that act on opposite sides of a joint


muscle that prevents movement of bone

Intrinsic Muscles

entirely contained within a region, such as the hand

Extrinsic Muscles

act on a designated region, but has its origin elsewhere

Innervation of a muscle

refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it; Enables the diagnosis of nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem injuries from their effects on muscle function


weblike network of spinal nerves adjacent to the vertebral column

Spinal Nerves

arise from the spinal cord; Emerge through intervertebral foramina; Immediately branch into a posterior and anterior ramus; Innervate muscles below the neck

Cranial Nerves

arise from the base of the brain; Emerge through skull foramina; Innervate the muscles of the head and neck; Numbered CN I to CN XII

Digastric muscle

opens mouth widely


depresses mandible


elevates floor of mouth at the beginning of swallowing


elevates hyloid


depresses hyoid after elevation


depresses hyoid after elevation


depresses hyoid and elevates larynx


depresses larynx after elevation

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Repetitive motions cause inflammation and pressure on median nerve

Pharyngeal Constrictors

Encircle pharynx forming a muscular funnel
During swallowing, drive food into the esophagus

Hyoid Muscles- Infrahyoid Group

Fix hyoid bone from below, allowing suprahyoid muscles to open mouth

Hyoid Muscles- Suprahoid Group

Aspects of chewing, swallowing, and vocalizing
Eight pairs of hyoid muscles associated with hyoid bone


bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium

Glycemic Control

Regulation of blood glucose concentrations within its normal range


internal muscular rings that control the movement of food, bile, blood, and other materials within the body

Antigravity Muscles

resist pull of gravity and prevent us from falling or slumping over

Intermuscular Septa

separate one muscle compartment from another

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