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Thin sleeve of loose connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber
Allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers to reach each muscle fiber
Provides extracellular chemical environment for the muscle fiber and its associated nerve ending
Slightly thicker layer of connective tissue
Fascicles: bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium
Carry larger nerves and blood vessels, and stretch receptors
Fibrous sheath surrounding the entire muscle
Outer surface grades into the fascia
Inner surface sends projections between fascicles to form perimysium
Sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles or muscle groups from each other and the subcutaneous tissue
muscle that aids the prime mover; stabilizes the nearby joint; modifies the direction of movement
Innervation of a muscle
refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it; Enables the diagnosis of nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem injuries from their effects on muscle function
arise from the spinal cord; Emerge through intervertebral foramina; Immediately branch into a posterior and anterior ramus; Innervate muscles below the neck
arise from the base of the brain; Emerge through skull foramina; Innervate the muscles of the head and neck; Numbered CN I to CN XII
Encircle pharynx forming a muscular funnel
During swallowing, drive food into the esophagus
Hyoid Muscles- Infrahyoid Group
Fix hyoid bone from below, allowing suprahyoid muscles to open mouth
Hyoid Muscles- Suprahoid Group
Aspects of chewing, swallowing, and vocalizing
Eight pairs of hyoid muscles associated with hyoid bone
internal muscular rings that control the movement of food, bile, blood, and other materials within the body
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