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Aronson and Linder
proposed the gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes will have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant
developed self-perception theory as an alternative to cognitive-dissonance theory; suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; linked with concept of androgyny
Darley and Latane
proposed that there were two factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibility
suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender, per se, but to differing social roles
developed balance theory to explain why attitudes change; also developed attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: dispositional and situational
developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decision making can sometimes go awry
studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers
studied the mere exposure effect; also resolved problems with the social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances the emission of dominant responses and impairs the emission of nondominant responses
linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition; distinguished between the surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another
trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality
behaviorist theorist known for his social learning theory; did modeling experiment using "Bobo" doll; studied observational learning
Dollard and Miller
behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework
trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism
Psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others: moving toward, moving against, moving away from
phenomenological personality theorist; developed client-centered therapy, based on the concept of unconditional positive regard
investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudopatients admitted into mental hospitals
French anatomist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with producing spoken language
physiologist who studied the autonomic nervous system, including "fight or flight" reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard proposed the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions
demonstrated that simple learning behavior in sea snails is associated with changes in neurotransmission
Kluver and Bucy
studied loss of normal fear and rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied the amygdala's role in emotions
Olds and Milner, P.
demonstrated the existence of the pleasure center in the brain using self-stimulation studies in rats
empirical studies led to traveling wave theory of pitch perception which, at least partially, supported Helmholtz's place-resonance theory
developed Fechner's law, which expresses the relationship between the intensity of the stimulus and the intensity of the sensation
developed the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision; developed place-resonance theory of pitch perception
Hubel and Wiesel
studied feature detection in visual cortex and discovered simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells
Wever and Bray
developed volley theory of pitch perception in response to a criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception
Yerkes and Dodson
developed Yerkes-Dodson law which states that performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal
suggested the Premack principle: that a more-preferred activity could be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
performed experiments which showed that contiguity could not fully explain classical condtitioning; proposed the contingency theory of classical conditioning
performed experiment on Little Albert showing that the acquisition of phobias was due to classical conditioning
investigated the role of schemata in memory; concluded that memory is largely a reconstructive process
divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout the lifespan
Craik and Lockhart
developed the levels-of-processing theory of memory as an alternative to the stage theory of memory
proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligence into seven different types, all of which are equally important
Kahneman and Tversky
investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic
McClelland and Rumelhart
suggested that the brain processes information using parallel distributed processing
suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor called g
proposed the triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: compnential, experiential, and contextual
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