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130 terms

Psych GRE people and terms

Useful terms and famous psychologists for the Psychology GRE subject test.
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Aronson and Linder
proposed the gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes will have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant
Asch
studied conformity by asking subjects to compare the lengths of lines
Bem
developed self-perception theory as an alternative to cognitive-dissonance theory; suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; linked with concept of androgyny
clark and clark
performed a famous study on doll preferences in African American children
Darley and Latane
proposed that there were two factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibility
Eagly
suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender, per se, but to differing social roles
Festinger
developed cognitive dissonance theory; also developed social comparison theory
Hall
studied norms for interpersonal distance in interpersonal interactions
Heider
developed balance theory to explain why attitudes change; also developed attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: dispositional and situational
Hovland
studied attitude change
Janis
developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decision making can sometimes go awry
Lerner
proposed the concept of belief in a just world
Lewin
divided leadership styles into three categories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
McGuire
studied how psychological inoculation could help people resist persuasion
Milgram
studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers
Newcomb
studied political norms
Petty and Cacioppo
developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
schachter
studied relationship between anxiety and the need for affiliation
Sherif
used the autokinetic effect to study conformity; also performed the Robber's Cave experiment
Zajonc
studied the mere exposure effect; also resolved problems with the social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances the emission of dominant responses and impairs the emission of nondominant responses
Zimbardo
performed prison simulation and used concept of deindividuation to explain results
Ainsworth
devised the "strange situation" to study attachment
Baumrind
studied the relationship between parental style and aggression
Bowlby
studied attachment in children
Chomsky
linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition; distinguished between the surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another
Erikson
outlined the eight stages of psychosocial development covering the entire lifespan
Freud
outlined five stages of psychosexual development
Gesell
believed that development was due primarily to maturation
Gilligan
suggested that males and females have different orientations toward morality
Hall
founder of developmental psychology
Harlow
used monkeys and surrogate mothers to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation
Kohlberg
studied moral development using moral dilemmas
Locke
believed in the blank slate
Lorenz
studied imprinting in birds
Piaget
outlined four stages of cognitive development
Rousseau
French philosopher who suggested that development could unfold without help from society
Terman
performed a longitudinal study on gifted children
Tyron
studied the genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats
Vygotsky
studied cognitive development; stressed the importance of the zone of proximal development
Adler
psychodynamic theorist best known for the concept of the inferiority complex
Allport
trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality
Bandura
behaviorist theorist known for his social learning theory; did modeling experiment using "Bobo" doll; studied observational learning
Cattell
trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality
Dollard and Miller
behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework
Eysenck
trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism
Horney
Psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others: moving toward, moving against, moving away from
Jung
talked about the collective unconscious
Kelly
based personality theory on the notion of "individual as scientist"
Kerberg
object-relations theorist
Klein
object-relations theorist
Lewin
phenomenological personality theorist who developed field theory
Mahler
object-relations theorist
Maslow
Phenomenological personality theorist known for hierarchy of needs and self-actualization
McClelland
studied the need for achievement (nAch)
Mischel
critic of trait theories of personality
Rogers
phenomenological personality theorist; developed client-centered therapy, based on the concept of unconditional positive regard
Rotter
studied locus of control
Sheldon
attempted to relate somatotype to personality type
Skinner
behaviorist; developed principles of operant conditioning
Winnicott
object-relations theorist
Witkin
studied field-dependence and field-independence using the rod and frame test
Beck
CBT therapist known for his therapy for depression
Bleuler
coined the term schizophrenia
Dix
19th century American advocate of asylum reform
Ellis
CBT therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Kraepelin
developed a system in the 19th century for classifying mental disorders
Pinel
reformed French asylums in the 18th century
Rosenhan
investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudopatients admitted into mental hospitals
Seligman
formulated the learned helplessness theory of depression
Szasz
suggested that most of the mental disorders treated by clinicians are not real disorders
Broca
French anatomist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with producing spoken language
Cannon
physiologist who studied the autonomic nervous system, including "fight or flight" reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard proposed the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions
Kandel
demonstrated that simple learning behavior in sea snails is associated with changes in neurotransmission
James and Lange
proposed the James-Lange theory of emotions
Kluver and Bucy
studied loss of normal fear and rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied the amygdala's role in emotions
Luria
studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions
Milner
studied H.M.
Olds and Milner, P.
demonstrated the existence of the pleasure center in the brain using self-stimulation studies in rats
Penfield
mapped out different parts of the brain during surgery
Schacter and Singer
proposed the Schachter-Singer theory of emotions
Sherrington
first inferred the existence of the synapse
Sperry and Gazzaniga
did split-brain studies
Wernicke
identified the part of the brain primarily associated with understanding spoken language
Bekesy
empirical studies led to traveling wave theory of pitch perception which, at least partially, supported Helmholtz's place-resonance theory
Berkeley
developed a list of depth cues that help us perceive depth
Broadbent
proposed filter theory of attention
Fechner
developed Fechner's law, which expresses the relationship between the intensity of the stimulus and the intensity of the sensation
Gibson and Walk
developed the visual cliff apparatus
Gibson
studied depth cues, especially texture gradients
Helmholtz
developed the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision; developed place-resonance theory of pitch perception
Hering
developed opponent process theory of color vision
Hubel and Wiesel
studied feature detection in visual cortex and discovered simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells
Kohler
developed the theory of isomorphism; studied insight in problem solving
Melzack and Wall
proposed gate theory of pain
Stevens
developed Stevens's law as an alternative to Fechner's law
Swets
refined ROC curves in signal detection theory
Wever and Bray
developed volley theory of pitch perception in response to a criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception
Yerkes and Dodson
developed Yerkes-Dodson law which states that performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal
Breland and Breland
studied instinctual drift
Garcia
studied taste-aversion learning
Lorenz
ethologist who studied unlearned, instinctual behaviors in the natural environment
Pavlov
developed the principles of classic conditioning
Premack
suggested the Premack principle: that a more-preferred activity could be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
Rescorla
performed experiments which showed that contiguity could not fully explain classical condtitioning; proposed the contingency theory of classical conditioning
Thorndike
proposed the law of effect; used puzzle boxes to study problem solving in cats
Tinberen
ethologist who introduced experimental methods into field situations
von Frisch
ethologist who studied communication in honey bees
Watson
performed experiment on Little Albert showing that the acquisition of phobias was due to classical conditioning
Wilson
developed sociobiology
Wolpe
developed the method of systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias
Bartlett
investigated the role of schemata in memory; concluded that memory is largely a reconstructive process
Cattell
divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout the lifespan
Collins and Loftus
devised the spreading activation model of semantic memory
Craik and Lockhart
developed the levels-of-processing theory of memory as an alternative to the stage theory of memory
Ebbinghaus
studied memory using nonsense syllables and the method of savings
Gardner
proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligence into seven different types, all of which are equally important
Guilford
developed divergent thinking test to measure creativity
Kahneman and Tversky
investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic
Loftus
studied eyewitness memory
Luchins
used the water-jar problem to study the effect of mental sets on problem solving
Macoby and Jacklin
found support for gender differences in verbal ability
McClelland and Rumelhart
suggested that the brain processes information using parallel distributed processing
Miller
found that the capacity of short-term memory is 7 plus or minus 2 items
Paivio
proposed the dual-code hypothesis
Smith, Shoben, and Rips
devised the semantic feature-comparison model of semantic memory
Spearman
suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor called g
Sperling
studied the capacity of sensory memory using the partial-report method
Sternberg
proposed the triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: compnential, experiential, and contextual
Thurstone
used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities
Whorf
hypothesized that language determines how reality is perceived