Child Development exam 5

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While there is great individual variation in terms of the start of puberty, on the whole, boys reach puberty _______ girls
later than
Eleven year old Maria had always been about the same size as her 9-year old brother Domingo until recently. Maria is now almost two inches taller than her brother and she has also noticed she has gained some weight. Maria is most likely going through
menarche
The period of maturation during which the sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than boys is called
puberty
Compared to the past, girls in the United States experience _____ at the significantly younger age of 11 or 12, most likely because of better nutrition and overall health.
growth spurt
The earlier start of puberty is an example of a significant ____, a statistical tendency oversexed over several generations
secular trend
Rudy is a 16-year old that likes to brag about his recent development of underarm hair. He says that he is a man now and that he is an adult. Rudy's development of underarm hair is an
secondary sex characteristic
_____ girls tend to endure more ridicule than their ____ classmates
early-maturing; less mature
According to research, the most common nutritional concern during adolescence is
obesity
An eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat while denying that their behavior or skeletal appearance is out of the ordinary is called
anorexia nervosa
One specific area of the brain that undergoes considerable development throughout adolescence is the _____, which is not fully developed until around the age of 20
prefrontal cortex
Long-term, continuous exposure to stressors may result in a reduction of the body's ability to deal with ____. As a consequence , people become more susceptible to disease as their ability to with off germs declines
illness
Jack, a high school student, is having some academic problems. In order to cope with this, Jack speaks to his teachers and asks that they extend deadlines for assignments. Jack's ability to use _____ demonstrates his attempts to manage a stressful problem or situation by directly changes the situation to make it less stressful
problem-focused coping
The use of drugs can produce a _____ addiction where people grow to depend on drugs to cope with the everyday stress of life
psychological
Some adolescents drink because ____, in which they assume that everyone is drinking at high levels due to a few conspicuous examples.
a false consensus effect
Jordan is a teenager who has many different sexual partners. He is at risk for contracting
a sexually transmitted disease
A common sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus that produces symptoms not unlike cold sores that sometimes appear around the mouth is known as
genital herpes
During her ninth grade science class, Maricella became interested in genetics for the first time because she was reading about dinosaurs in the book Jurassic Park. Therefore, for an English reading class, Maricella asked her teacher if she could write about what it would be like if someone genetically reproduced some kind of super-dinosaur by accident. Marcelo wrote on this subject, which would have been too abstract for her just two years prior. According to Piaget, this shows that Maricella had reached the
formal operational stage
Adolescent's increased _____ abilities may lead them to question their parents and other authority figures far more strenuously, and may make adolescents impatient with imperfections in institutions such as schools and the government
abstract reasoning
The _____ sees changes in cognitive abilities as gradual transformations in the capacity to take in, use, and store information advances
information-processing perspective
Marsha is always complaining that her parents and teacher cannot relate to her and consistently points out faults in others, especially those in authority positions. Marsha is likely dealing with
adolescent egocentrism
Fictitious observers who pay as much attention to adolescents behavior as adolescents do themselves are called
the imaginary audience
Mary sits in the very back of her high school classroom behind he largest boy in her class, but overtime she looks up, she feels like the teacher is focusing everything on her no matter how hard she tries to draw attention away from herself. She constantly constructs elaborate scenarios about what her teacher thinks of her. Mary is dealing with
adolescent egocentrism
Tonja is a sexually active teenager who thinks that there is no need to use a condom during sex because in her ____ she constructs pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS as only happening to someone else, not herself
personal fable
According to Kohlberg, a person who would not steal because of fear of going to jail, even if it meant saving someone else's life is in the ____ stage or morality
preconventional
According to Kohlberg, a person who is faced with stealing something that will save someone else's life and who bases his or her decision on a universal moral principle that is broader than the rules of the particular society in which he or she lives in order to live up to his or her own moral principle is in the _____ stage or morality
postconventional
According to Gilligan, the stage or morality where women come to see that hurting anyone is immoral-including hurting themselves- and which establishes a moral equivalence between themselves and others and represents the most sophisticated level or moral reasoning, is called
morality of nonviolence
Sixteen-year- old Jose lives in a government housing project with his mother, father, brother, and two sisters. He shares his room with his brother and attends the school in the low SES area of the city. Jose's home does not have a computer and it has very few books. HIs mother does not speak English and his father did not complete high school. Jose is likely to face _____ due to his environmental factors.
academic failure
When the primary orientation is on part-time jobs, adolescents tend to
focus more on their jobs than school
Because economic success is so dependent on _____, dropping out often perpetuates a cycle of poverty
education
Classes in education and the social sciences typically have a larger proportion of _____ and classes in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics tend to have more_____.
women than men; men than women
When Sherry takes college classes in math, science, and engineering, she is _____ likely to do poorly than men who enter college with the same level of preparation and identical SAT scores as herself due to stereotype threat
less
According to Ginzberg, the period in late adolescence and early adulthood during which people explore career options through job experience or training, narrow their choices, and eventually make a commitment to a career is called the
realistic period
Barry is a 19- year old college student who is very abstract and analytical person. He stays to himself because he is not very good with people, but he is extremely mathematical and also excels at science. According to Holland, Barry has a _____ personality type
intellectual
According to Holland, there are ____ personality types that are important in career choice.
six
Sondra is 17. She bases everything she does on her own unique capabilities and has developed an accurate sense of who she is. Sandra is prepared to set out on a path that takes full advantage of what her unique strengths permit her to do. According to Erikson, Sondra is in the _____ stage
identity-versus-identity confusion
The importance of peers in helping adolescents define their identities and learning to form relationships points out a link between Erikson's identity-versus-identity confusion stage and his _____ stage
intimacy-verus-isolation
According to Erikson, the period which adolescents take time off from the upcoming responsibilities of adulthood and explore various roles and possibilities is known as
psychological moratorium
When Rita's high school counselor asks her about her career plans, Rita acts indifferent and says that she has not thought about it much. Rita is characterized by what identity status?
identity diffusion
Lola is 18 and it is an election year. Lola come from a family of Republicans and accepts her family's beliefs without question. She plans to vote Republican in November for the presidential election. which identity status characterizes Lola?
identity foreclosed
The _____ suggests that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features. According to this view, racial and ethnic factors become a central part of adolescents identity and are not submerged in an attempt to assimilate into the majority culture
pluralistic society model
Lynda Santiago is a 17 year-old who came to the United States from Puerto Rico when she was a young girl. She has always thought of herself as an American and a Puerto Rican and lives with two cultural identities,without choosing one over the other. Lynda is a part of a
bicultural society
The rate of suicide is ____ for boys that girls, and girls ____ suicide more frequently
higher;attempt
Cedrics parents have noticed that he is constantly coming home later and later in the evenings after basketball practice. However, they do not say anything to Cedric about his behavior because they know that they must foster his sense of
autonomy
Seiko's mother is from Okinawa and came to America when he married his father. Although his father is an american, the children are raised with a more Asian viewpoint, where the idea that the well being of the family group is highly important. Seikos family has a _____ societal viewpoint
collectivistic
Regardless of a generation gap, on _____ issues, parents and adolescents tend to be in synch, and children's worries mirror those of their parents
all of these answers
a) social
b) political
c) religious
Liz is an 18-year old and her parents have noticed that her dependence on adults has declined. She is developing an increasing dependence on the _____ group and is forging close relationships through this group, which seem to help Liz find her own identity as she is comparing herself to others
peer
Leslie is the new girl in her high school sophomore class, and she has noticed that certain people seem to set the standard for her school. Her other high school was so small that everyone hung out together, but this larger school she now attends definitely has cliques. The group of people that Leslie notices as setting the norms for "popular" is known as a
reference group
Brad's parents knew that if they wanted to find their son at the county fair, they just ha dot find one of the 10 or so boys that were together so often, at school and after school. Brad's parents are referring to a
clique
Sex segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girl interact primarily with girls is called
sex cleavage
Lillith has friends in the band and is really well liked by the other students in her honors classes. However, Lillith does not have many of those students to talk with because she got stuck in the lunch period with all the athletes who do not associate with her. Lilith is a ______ adolescent in her high school
controversial