Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 15 Final Review (10-15 Questions)
Terms in this set (65)
A graphic representation of the shape, direction, amplitude, and direction of a particular electrical current.
The ability of the electrical stimulating unit to change the magnitude or duration of a waveform. Modulation may be continuous, bursts, or surging for biphasic, monophasic, and pulsatile currents.
The voltage output of the stimulating unit. 150V is low-voltage. 500V is high voltage.
The length of time that current is flowing. Also referred to as pulse width or pulse duration.
The number of waveforms being emitted by the electrical stimulating unit in 1 second. Measured in pulses per second (pps), cycles per second (cps), and hertz (Hz).
The direction of current flow toward either a positive or negative pole.
A decrease in intensity as sound enters deeper tissues.
Electrical current produced by applying pressure to certain synthetic crystals, such as quartz.
Effective Radiating Area
The portion of the transducer that produces sound energy.
Beam Non-uniformity Ration (BNR)
The amount of variability in intensity of the ultrasound beam. The lower the
BNR, the more uniform the energy output. Optimally, the BNR would be 1:1.
Measurement of volume or amount of electrical energy.
Measurement of resistance.
Measurement of power.
A technique that combines cryotherapy with exercise.
Heating through other forms of energy, such as sound, electricity, and chemical agents.
Transfer of heat through space from one object to another.
Heating indirectly through medium, such as air or liquid.
Heating through direct contact with a hot medium.
Lack of blood supply to a body part.
What are the classifications of modalities?
1) Thermal conductive energy.
2) Electrical energy.
3) Electromagnetic energy.
4) Sound energy.
5) Mechanical energy.
Thermal conductive energy modalities
1) Thermotherapy and cryotherapy techniques
- Hydrocollator Packs.
- Whirlpool Baths.
- Paraffin Bath.
- Ice massage.
- Cold-or-ice water immersion.
- Ice packs.
- Vapocoolant Sprays.
The application of heat to treat disease and injuries. For a physiological response to occur, heat must be absorbed into the tissue and spread to adjacent tissue. Use this type of modality for injuries at least 72 hours old.
What are the physiological responses to thermotherapy?
1) Muscle spasm = DECREASES.
2) Pain perception = DECREASES.
3) Blood Flow = INCREASES.
4) Metabolic rate = INCREASES.
5) Collagen elasticity = INCREASES.
6) Joint stiffness = DECREASES.
7) Capillary permeability = INCREASES.
8) Edema = INCREASES.
The application of cold for the first aid of trauma to the musculoskeletal system. Use this type of modality for acute injuries within 72 hours.
What are the phase of response by the skin to cold application.
1) Cold sensation from 0-3 minutes.
2) Mild burning and aching from 2-7 minutes.
3) Numbness from 5-12 minutes.
What are the physiological effects of cryotherapy?
1) Muscle guarding = DECREASES.
2) Pain perception = DECREAES.
3) Blood flow = DECREASES up to 10 minutes.
4) Metabolic rate = DECREASES.
5) Collagen elasticity = DECREASES.
6) Joint stiffness = INCREASES.
7) Capillary Permeability = INCREASES.
8) Edema = CONTROVERSIAL.
Combines cryotherapy with exercise. The goal is to numb the injured part to point of analgesia and then work toward achieving normal range of motion through progressive active exercise. Usually exercises for 3-5 minutes.
What is true of cryokinetics?
1) All the exercise must be pain free.
2) All the exercise must be active - performed by the athlete.
3) All the exercise must be performed smoothly and without abnormal motions.
4) The exercises should be progressive but without pain.
When applying an ice massage, the temperature seldom goes below what?
59 degrees F.
Causes a slight temperature increase during cooling.
This condition is characterized by vasospasm , skin blanching, cyanosis, and possibly result in tissue death.
What modality is most often used after an initial injury?
What modality is most often used during the latter stage of healing where an increase in range of motion is desired.
What represents the major therapeutic indication for the use of Ultrasound?
Tissue temperature increase.
Heat is produced in with the use of Ultrasound via what occurrence?
Vibration of tissues.
Physiological effects can only occur from electromagnetic modalities under what condition?
Energy must be absorbed.
What modality utilizes convection as its method of heat transfer?
What modality represents radiation as a form of heat transfer?
An athlete who exhibits hives, wheal formation, joint pain, and swelling following a treatment has experienced an allergic reaction to what modality?
A therapeutic technique that involves the introduction of ions into the body tissues by means of a direct electrical current. Used in the treatment of inflammatory musculoskeletal conditions.
Maximum muscle contraction.
The modality used to transmit medication through the skin using mechanical vibrations.
Phonophoresis vs iontophoresis
Phonophoresis involves the use of acoustic energy in the form of ultrasound to transport whole molecules across the skin into the tissues, where as inotophoresis uses an electrical current to transport ions into the tissues.
Gate Control Pain theory
Electrical stimulation of sensory nerves will evoke the gate control mechanism and diminish awareness of painful stimuli. As long as the stimulation is causing the sensory nerves to fire, the gate to pain should be close. IF the stimulus stops, the gate is then open, and pain returns to perception.
Descending Pathway Pain Control Theory
Intense electrical stimulation of the smaller pain fibers at trigger and acupuncture points for short time periods causes stimulation of descending neurons, which then affect the transmission of pain information by closing the gate at the spinal cord level.
Opiate Pain Control Theory
High intensity electrical stimulation causing a release of beta endorphins to naturally decrease pain.
Monophasic Current (DC)
Direct current. Flows in one direction only from the positive pole to the negative pole. May be used for pain modulation or muscle contraction or to produce ion movement.
Biphasic Current (AC)
Alternating current. The direction of current flow reverses itself once during each cycle. May be used for pain modulation or muscle contraction.
Usually contain three or more pulses grouped together. These groups of pulses are interrupted for short periods of time and repeat themselves at regular intervals. Used in interferential pre-modulation and so called Russian currents.
This type of contraction is used to help stimulate circulation by pumping fluid and blood through the venous and lymphatic channels back to the heart.
Electrical stimulation can be used to facilitate strength gains.
Retardation of atrophy
Electrically induced muscle contraction can be used to minimize the atrophy and loss of muscle function that typically occurs with immobilization after injury.
Make use of two separate electrical generators that emit currents at two slightly different frequencies. Two pairs of electrodes are arranged in a square pattern such that currents cross one another, creating an interference pattern at a central pint of stimulation. The interference pattern creates a larger area of stimulation which is a benefit compared to other currents.
How to determine the frequency of the ultrasound
- 1MHz or 1 Mega hertz ultrasound = penetrates DEEPER into tissues. Useful in individuals with high percent body fat cutaneously and whenever the desired effects are in the deeper structures.
- 3 MHz or 3 Mega hertz ultrasound = penetrates SUPERFICIALLY into tissues
The sound intensity remains constant throughout the treatment and the ultrasound energy is being produced 100% of the time. Produces thermal effects.
The output is periodically interrupted and no ultrasound energy is produced during the off period. Produces non-thermal effects.
The percentage of time that ultrasound is being generated.
Non-thermal effects of ultrasound
1) Cavitation: formation of gas-filled bubbles that expand and compress because of ultrasonically induced pressure changes in tissue fluids.
2) Micro-streaming: The unidirectional movement of fluids along the boundaries of cell membranes.
-alter membrane properties.
- alter cellular proliferation.
-produce increases in proteins.
When one is using the ultrasound, the area of treatment should NOT be more than what?
3 to 4 inches.
How should you move the ultrasound transducer?
Slowly at approximately 1 1/2 inches per second.
What functions do intermittent compressions serve?
Makes use of a nylon pneumatic inflatable sleeve applied around the injured extremity. The sleeve can be inflated to a specific pressure that forces excessive fluid accumulated in the interstitial spaces into vascular and lymphatic channels, through which it is removed from the area of injury. Compression facilitates the movement of lymphatic fluid, which helps eliminate the byproducts of the injury process.
What are indications for intermittent compression?
Used for controlling or reducing swelling after one acute injury or for pitting edema, which tends to develop in the injured are several hours after injury.
This classification is associated with massage.
A drawing tension applied to a body segment. Used in the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 1 Final Review (15-20 Questions)
Chapter 2 Final Review (15-20 Questions)
Chapter 3 Final Review (25-30 Questions)
Chapter 7 Final Review (10-15 Questions)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 15 Therapeutic Modalities
therapeutic modalities chapter 15 kin 188
HIP Ch. 15
C & P Ch. 5
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Sports Nutrition Final Exam
Kinesiology EXAM 1