21 terms

Chapter 13 Key Terms

Chapter 13 Reading: Chapter 22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction Lessons 39-40
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Lincoln's "10 percent plan"
1863. Said that the southern states could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters pledge an oath to the Union and acknowledge the emancipation of the slaves.
Radical Republicans
Led by Thaddeus Stevens, Ben Wade and Charles Sumner. A minority group that felt that the Confederate states should be treated like conquered provinces and deserved punishment for seceding. They wanted to drastically change the south and give the free slaves full citizenship before restoring the states. Also, they thought that Congress should be in charge of Reconstruction, not the president. Thinking the 10% plan was not sufficient, they passed the Wade-Davis Bill in
The Wade-Davis Bill
Radical republicans passed this because they thought the 10% plan wasn't strong enough. It required 50% of the states' voters to take oaths of allegiance and also required the state constitutional conventions abolish slavery. Lincoln vetoed it by letting it expire.
The Black Codes
Southern states passed these to control the freed slaves. They were oppressive laws aimed at keeping the Black population in submission and to regulate their affairs. Blacks were forbidden to serve on a jury, vote, or rent or lease land. The harshness of the laws varied from state to state. They had to sign annual labor contracts and were severely punished if they were violated. The conditions of the blacks made many abolitionists wonder if the price of the Civil War was really worth it.
The Fourteenth Amendment
1. All Blacks had civil rights and were American citizens. 2. If a state denied Blacks' citizenship, then it's representatives in the Electoral College were reduced. 3. Former Confederates could not hold federal or state office. 4. The federal debt was guaranteed while the Union assumed all Confederate debts. All Republicans agreed that states HAD to ratify this in order to
The Fifteenth Amendment
Passed in 1869, it gave Blacks their right to vote.
The Military Reconstruction Act
Divided the South into five districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers to maintain order and protect civil rights. It temporarily disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederates, required states to ratify the 14th Amendment if they wanted to be re-admitted to the Union, and states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical Republicans in the Senate. Senator of Massachusetts. He was strongly opposed to slavery.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Gave blacks the privilege of American citizenship and denied states' the right to restrict blacks of their property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. Johnson vetoed this, but Congress voted to override the veto.
Tenure of Office Act, 1867
Said the president had to secure the consent of the Senate before removing his cabinet members once they had been approved by the Senate. It's purpose was to keep Edwin M. Stanton in the cabinet.
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.
Hiram Revels
American clergyman, educator, and politician, he became one of the first African Americans in the U.S. Senate. Represented Mississippi.
Blanche K. Bruce
Senator of Mississippi from 1875 to 1881 and was one of the first African Americans to serve a full term in the Senate.
Carpetbaggers
Sleazy northerners who came to the south seeking get-rich-quick business opportunities. They wanted power and profit.
Enforcement Acts (1870-1871)
Allowed the Federal government to intervene when state authorities failed to protect citizens.
Jay Gould and Jim Fisk
Two millionare businessmen who came up with the scheme to corner the gold market during the Ulysses S. Grant's presidency.
The Resumption Act
1875. Called for the gradual redemption of greenbacks for gold starting in 1879, making the value of paper money equal to the value of gold.
Samuel J. Tilden
The democratic presidential candidate in the election of 1876
Compromise of 1877
Settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes and Samuel Tilden. Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South. As a result, the Reconstruction was over and the Republicans gave up on the fight for racial equality.
Scalawags
Southerners who were accused of plundering Southern treasuries through their political influence in the radical governments and selling out the Southerners. They were ridiculed for not wanting to secede and allying with the blacks.