mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others
What does thinking include?
Memory, verbal "stream of consciousness," images and words in a person's mind
What is thinking?
It is being aware of information, making decisions on it, comparing it to other information and using it to solve problems
Tool used in the thinking process; mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality (visual image or mental picture of a word)
How long does it take to remember smaller things versus bigger things?
Bigger things take longer to remember as compared to small things because bigger things have more aspects to it
What is an example of imagery?
Asking someone to report all of the windows that they have in their house
How long does it take to rotate an image in our head?
As long as it would take us to rotate the image in our hands
How do we use mental imagery daily?
Used to find where we parked our car, creating day dreams, getting around town with our learned "mental maps"
How is creating a mental image different than seeing an actual image in terms of the brain?
An image is perceived in the "minds eye" when areas of the cortex with stored knowledge sends information to the visual cortex
What does the fMRI show in mental imagery?
This shows the overlap between visual imagery and visual perception
Idea of concepts
Two people can talk about birds even if two people aren't thinking of the same type of bird
What do concepts allow for?
They allow for the identification of new objects that may fit a certain concept
The most general form of a type of concept; refers to the highest status/standing
The most specific category of a concept; refers to the lowest in status/standing
How do prototypes develop?
They develop according to the exposure a person has to objects in that category; also effected by cultures
What are the most typical prototypes or the least typical prototypes?
Most typical prototypes is the thinking that comes quickest to the brain; the least typical is the thinking that comes slowest; when thinking of a fruit the most would be an orange and the least would be a tomato or an olive
Example of a Script
The idea of going to a movie includes travel, purchase of the ticket, purchase of snacks, finding a seat, enjoyment of the movie
Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
Trial and Error (mechanical solution)
Problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found
Very specific rote solution, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; "rule of thumb"
Example of Heuristics
When you are having trouble with format on word, you can either read entire manual or type "format" into the help box
Assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category
Estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is for us to recall information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples
Heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference by various means or methods
Example of means-end analysis
Learning how to make cute wedding invitations by hand because the pre-made ones are too expensive by breaking the process down into subgoals
Who and what was the experiment done with availability heuristic and the results?
Tversky and Kahneman asked which appeared more: the letter K at the beginning or in the third letter of the word in a book; people thought the beginning of a word would contain more K but it is actually the third letter of the word
When the solution to a problem seems to come suddenly to the mind; "aha!" moment discussed by Kohler in Sultan's Chimpanzee experiment
What is thinking?
A complex process involving the use of mental imagery and various types of concepts to organize the events of daily life
What is problem solving?
A special type of thinking that involves the use of many tools, such as trial-and-error thinking, algorithms, and heuristics to solve different types of problems
Why do people have difficulties with solving problems?
Solutions to a problem remain just "out of reach" because the elements of the problem are not arranged properly or because people get stuck in certain ways of thinking that act as barriers to solving problems
A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about an object in terms of only their typical functions; "fixed on the functions"
Example of Functional Fixedness
Looking for a screwdriver when you could use a dime because you see the dime only for its function as money
The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past; type of functional fixedness
The tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
Example of confirmation bias
Believers in ESP tend to remember the few studies that support it and "forget" the cases that don't
Type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
Type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
Which person is a creative thinker, a divergent thinker or a convergent thinker?
A divergent thinker
Why are divergent thinkers able to be more creative?
Divergent thinkers make links and connections at a level of consciousness just below alert awareness, so that ideas can flow freely without being censored by the higher mental processes; they are less prone to barriers of problem solving such as functional fixedness
What is a creative person (according to Csikszentmihalyi)?
1) have a broad range of knowledge about a lot of subjects and are good at using mental imagery
2) Aren't afraid to be different - they are more open to new experiences than many people, and they tend to have more vivid dreams and daydreams than others do
3) Value their independence
4) Often unconventional in their work, but no otherwise
The ability to learn from one's experience, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
Gardner's Nine Intelligences
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to use language
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to compose and/or perform music
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to think logically and to solve mathematical problems
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to understand how objects are oriented in space
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to control one's body motions
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the sensitivity to others and understanding motivation of others
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the understanding of one's emotions and how they guide actions
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to recognize the patterns found in nature
One of Gardner's Nine Intelligences that deals with the ability to see the "big picture" of the human world by asking questions about life, death, and the ultimate reality of human existence
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
One of the triarchic theories of intelligence; the ability to break down problems into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving; "book smarts"
One of the triarchic theories of intelligence; the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems; also refers to the ability to automatically process certain aspects of information, which frees up cognitive resources to deal with novelty
Which triarchic theory of intelligence is the same idea of divergent thinking?
One of the triarchic theories of intelligence; the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful; "street smarts"
What can a person with practical intelligence do?
Tactful , can manipulate situations, and use the inside information to increase their odds of success
Experiment done with the triarchic theory of Intelligence
Analytical - runs statistical analysis on data
Creative - designs the experiment
Practical - gets funding for experiment from donors
What did Sternberg found in comparison between practical and analytical intelligence?
There is a low relationship between practical intelligence (success) and academic (analytical) intelligence
Who came up with a test that could distinguish between fast and slow learners as well as different age groups?
Binet and Theodore Simon
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one's mental age by one's chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100
What does the IQ allow?
Allows testers to compare the intelligence levels of people of different age groups
Tests designed for specific age groups that has a verbal and performance scale and an overall score of intelligence (like Stanford-Binet IQ)
What are the different Wechsler Tests and who are they desiged for?
WAIS-IV = Adults; WISC-IV = Children; WPPSI-IV = Preschool
What are the four specific cognitive domains in Wechsler Tests?
Verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed
The tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people
When is a test unreliable?
When the tests don't produce the same results when the person has not changed
The extent that an obtained score accurately reflects the intended skill or outcome in real-life situations
The process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed
Distribution in which the scores are the most frequent around the mean and become less and less frequent from the mean they occur at
Deviation IQ Scores
A type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15
Example of Deviation of IQ Scores
IQ score of 130 would be two standard deviations above the mean; 70 would be two below the mean
What are intelligence tests useful for?
They are useful for measuring intelligence but should not necessarily be assumed to be measures of all types of intelligent behavior
A term referring to the tendency of IQ tests to reflect, in language, dialect, and content, the culture of the person or persons who designed the test
Don't create a disadvantage for people whose culture differs from that of the majority; employ nonverbal (to avoid verbal knowledge that might be culturally specific)
What do IQ tests do well to predict?
They do well to predict academic success for those at the higher and lower ends of the normal curve
How do neuropsychologists use IQ tests?
Use intelligence testing in diagnosis, tracking progress of individuals with disorders, and in monitoring recovery
What type of scores do the intellectually delayed have?
They have IQ scores below the mean of the normal curve
(formerly mental retardation); condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age; may also referred to as developmentally delayed
What characteristics classify a person as intellectually delayed?
1) IQ score must be below 70 or two standard deviations below the mean of the normal curve
2) The person's adaptive behavior is severely below a level appropriate for the person's age
3) Must be present before the age of 18
Behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age
What are some causes for people being developmentally delayed?
Unhealthy exposure to environment, poor nutrition, lack of oxygen at birth, damage to fetus, diseases and accidents during childhood
A delay related to living in poverty conditions and one that usually produces relatively mild intellectual disability
Fragile X Syndrome
Male has a defect gene on the X chromosome of the 23rd pair, leading to a deficiency in a protein needed for brain development
The 2% of the population failing on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above
What did Freeman write? and what did it claim?
It claimed that futures depend on peers, life conditions, money; being gifted doesn't always lead to success
What was the experiment with Terman's "Termites?" what did it discover?
1528 children participated in longitudinal study; found that these children were well adjusted, leaders, earned academic degrees, eventually were wealthy, were above average in height, weight, and physical attractiveness; had a sense of self, were resistant to mental illness; one's with the highest IQs had some social and behavioral adjustment problems
The awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and social skilled
Who was emotional intelligence introduced by? explained by?
Introduced by Salovey and Mayer; explained by Goleman
Who was emotional intelligence measured by? what did they determine?
Measured by Mayer and Geher; determined emotional intelligence is valid and may be related to general intelligence
What did Goleman propose about emotional intelligence?
Goleman proposed that emotional intelligence is a more powerful influence on success in life than more traditional views of intelligence
A system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others and representing a persons own internal mental activity
The proportion of change in IQ within a population that is caused by hereditary factors
What do genes have to do with intelligence according to the twin studies?
The twin studies show a strong correlation between twins (about .86) but because the number isn't 1.0, intelligence has something to do with environment
Who published The Bell Curve and what did it claim? why was it proved wrong?
Herrnstein and Murray published the book; it claims that IQ is inherited; this is proved wrong because compared race to intelligence by IQ, they assumed that intelligence was influenced by genetics, they failed to understand that heritability only applies to differences within a group of people
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Chomsky believes humans have the ability to understand and produce language through this
What are two different sentences that have the same semantic but a different syntax?
"johnny hit the ball" and "the ball was hit by Johnny"
Aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language
Examples of pragmatics
Take turns in a conversation, use of gestures, the way of speaking to different people or for different reasons
Preschool children spend a great deal of time talking to themselves even when playing with another child (egocentric)
What did Piaget theorize about language?
Piaget theorized that concepts preceded and aided the development of language; concepts become the "pegs" upon which words are "hung"
What did Vygotsky theorize about language?
Vygotsky theorized that language actually helped develop concepts and that language could help the child learn to control behavior (social behavior)
Idea of Vygotsky's theory
"mama" was learned and then the elements of "mama-ness" - warm, soft, food, safety, and etc - could develop around that word
What did Vygotsky theorize about egocentric speech?
Egocentric speech is a way for children to form thoughts and control actions
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The theory that though processes and concepts are controlled by language
Theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language rather than linguistic relativity
What can language shape?
Language can shape our thoughts about space, time, color, and objects; this idea is supported and also critiqued
What can language influence?
Language can influence the perception of others ("computer geek" vs. "software engineer"); also influences problem solving, cognition, and memory
What did animal studies determine about language?
Animals can communicate (warning growl of an angry dog), use of language is still unsure because gestures are instinctive, there have been attempts for primates and dolphins to use sign language, but there is no conclusive evidence of syntax mastery