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the process which uses light energy to synthesize molecules rich stored energy

primary procedures or autotrophs

photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms which ones make their own food

trophic pyramid

labeling organisms by their position on a who eats whom feeding hierarchy

physical factor

any aspect of the physical environment that affects living organisms

biological factors

biologically generated aspects of the environment

limiting factors

too much or too little of a single factor can adversely affect the function of an organism

photic zone

uppermost layer of seawater lit by the sun

aphotic zone

the permanently dark layer of seawater beneath the photic zone

eupthotic zone

most of the biological productivity of the ocean occurs in the upper part of the photic zone

disphotic zone

below the euphotic zone

metabolic rate

energy-releasing reactions proceed within the organism, increases with temperature


the majority of the marine organisms are "cold blooded", having internal temperatures that stay very close to that of their surroundings


"warm blooded", a few complex animals

pelagic zone

open water

neritic zone

near shore over the continental shelf

oceanic zone

beyond the continental shelf

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