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Terms in this set (18)
process by which groups come to be defined as different on the basis of perceived physical characteristics
What is racialization?
the concept that Canada is a mosaic of different ethnic, language, regional and religious groupings unequal in status and power
What is the vertical mosaic?
1. Prejudice and discrimination by charter groups
2. Immigrants maintain cultural practices that are incompatible with modern, industrialized societies
What are 2 factors that maintain the vertical mosaic?
explanation for income inequality:
Deindustrialization: shift from goods to service employment
1) elimination of many middle-level manufacturing jobs
2) increase in both low and high-paying service jobs (polarization)
What is the McJob thesis?
income inequality is largely a result of polarization WITHIN occupational groups and classes, not just BETWEEN them
Why is the McJob thesis wrong?
in a subculture, a particular behaviour may be the norm but from the perspective of the larger culture, the behaviour is considered to be deviant
-deviance is the outcome of social strains due to the way the society is structured
-for some, the strain becomes so overwhelming that they do deviance as a way to manage the strain
-it is not just that some people are "bad" but that same situations can make people behave in ways they would not usually behave
-once someone in a position of social power labels someone as deviant, the person "becomes" deviant
-produces a self-fulfilling prophecy
-most people, most of the time follow the rules b/c socialization constrains us
-weak bonds between individual & society allow people to deviate
we learn our behaviours from those around us
1st: civil & political rights
2nd: economic, social, & cultural rights
3rd: solidarity rights (not yet legally or politically recognized)
What are the 3 generations of human rights?
-rise of capitalism
-changes in western religion (human agency)
-rise of social movements
-rise of individualism
what are the forces driving human rights? (5)
societies throughout the world embrace similar values & the organizations to deliver on those values
how have human rights become more universalized?
-formal institutional mechanisms
-informal organizational arrangements
-institutional alignments as support
-institutional adjustments as vehicles
what are the mechanisms for implementing & enforcing human rights? (5)
-assumes that social differences are due to intrinsic biological or psychological differences
-reduces aspects of sex & sexuality to biology & nature
-biology determines our behaviours & our choices
-biological sex is a "natural" divide between females & males
-heterosexuality arises from the need to procreate
-homosexuality as an "unnatural" deviation
What are the key assumptions of biological essentialism? (4)
1. sex: biological & physiological characteristics
-assigned at birth
2. gender: socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate
-learned, embodied & performed
Distinguish between sex and gender
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