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Growth of industry

-revolutions in technology and transportation made growth possible

Transcontinental railroads

-first completed in 1869, three more added in 1880s
-linked cities in every state
-nationwide distributor of goods
-helped westward relocation of industry

Early communication innovations

-Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone 1876
-Thomas Edison started Edison Electric Light Company 1882
-Henry Ford producing automobiles by 1900
-Wright brothers staged first flight 1903 North Carolina

Second Industrial Revolution

-depended on application of new technology to increase productivity of labor
-used anthracite coal, popular new source of energy b/c cheap and reliable

Vertical integration

-consolidation of all steps of production of a good (start-to-finish) under direction of one company (ex. United Fruit Company)

Horizontal combination

-merger of competitors in the same industry (ex. John Rockefeller, Standard Oil Company)

Sherman Antitrust Act

-1890, passed by Congress to restore competition by encouraging small businesses and limiting monopolies

Gospel of Wealth

-thesis that hard work and perseverance lead to wealth (main goal in life)

Robber barons

-corrupt leaders of corporations who accumulated money through conspiracies, shady deals, and work of others
-justified by Gospel of Wealth

Jay Gould

-prime example of robber baron
-"Worst Man in the World"

Andrew Carnegie

-started as poor immigrant, worked hard to gain wealth, created steel empire
-"Richest Man in the World"

Social Darwinism

-theory that justified why some Americans grew rich while others remained poor (based on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution)
-"survival of the fittest"

Wage system

-new system of industry work b/c growth of industry
-employees had less independence, not as skilled
-managers held all power

White women in Second Industrial Revolution

-new opportunities to work outside of home with better-paying jobs

African Americans in Second Industrial Revolution

-women were able to get jobs in domestic service (not affected by tech)
-men were excluded and segregated against; lots lost jobs
-in South, even with new industry, men mostly stuck in low-paying jobs

Chinese racism

-Chinese, who had been recruited for mines, faced harshest segregation
-1882, Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act: suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years, limited civil rights of residents

Knights of Labor

-1869 union formed in response to bad working conditions
-accepted everyone except Chinese
-promoted economic cooperation
-biggest success with movement for eight-hour workday
-crushed with Haymarket Square Riot

Haymarket Square Riot

-May 4, 1886: protest in Chicago's Haymarket Square --> somebody threw a bomb and killed 8, policemen responded by killing more
-group of anarchists arrested/executed without real evidence

American Federation of Labor

-formed 1886, led by Samuel Gompers
-more exclusive: only white, male, skilled
-accepted wage system and emphasized a few workplace issues instead of complete reform

New South

-envisioned modern, efficient textile mills, plenty of workers, surplus of land
-attempts to start up industry were stopped by North from fear of competition; by 1920s, North held most of South's wealth
-in actuality, stayed fairly rural and reinforced status as internal colony

Southern Labor

-African Americans still stuck mostly in low-paying jobs
-workers rarely united over race lines
-wages in South were much lower than North
-more child labor and system of convict labor

Growth of city population

-immigrants = most of growth in late 19c, because of expanding opportunities for employment (many planned on making money, then moving back home)
-lots of African Americans moved North

Immigrants/working class in cities

-most immigrants stayed in cities with kinfolk
-often lived better in America, but only with harder work
-some young settled in YMCA and YWCA
-working class women and children did household labor without new appliances and worked at home to make money (sewing, boarders, etc)


-small residential dwellings without good ventilation of light
-majority of city population confined to tenements

Gilded Age

-term applied to late 19c America that refers to shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of period
-dubbed by Mark Twain

Conspicuous consumption

-highly visible displays of wealth and consumption

New middle class

-long work hours allowed families able to live in security/comfort and separate work and home
-end of century, many settled in suburbs

Middle-class women

-used time to take care of home
-relied on new appliances (improved stove, eggbeaters, etc.)
-basic tasks became more complex with new machines
-spending most of time on consumption

Gospel of Exercise

-middle class enjoyed exercising in leisure time (hiking, skating, biking, piano playing)


-public education system grew with growth of industry, esp. high schools
-benefited women, esp. increased access to higher education (medical/law schools, etc.)
-special colleges founded for African Americans

Women's Education and Industrial Union

-founded 1877
-Boston organization offering classes to wage-earning women


-increased construction of parks, ice-skating rinks, playgrounds etc.

National Pastimes

-ragtime music became popular with young urban middle class
-vaudeville also bridged middle- and working-class tastes
-baseball was most popular, appealing to people of all classes

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