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Chapter 19: Incorporation of America FRQ Study Guide

Growth of industry
-revolutions in technology and transportation made growth possible
Transcontinental railroads
-first completed in 1869, three more added in 1880s
-linked cities in every state
-nationwide distributor of goods
-helped westward relocation of industry
Early communication innovations
-Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone 1876
-Thomas Edison started Edison Electric Light Company 1882
-Henry Ford producing automobiles by 1900
-Wright brothers staged first flight 1903 North Carolina
Second Industrial Revolution
-depended on application of new technology to increase productivity of labor
-used anthracite coal, popular new source of energy b/c cheap and reliable
Vertical integration
-consolidation of all steps of production of a good (start-to-finish) under direction of one company (ex. United Fruit Company)
Horizontal combination
-merger of competitors in the same industry (ex. John Rockefeller, Standard Oil Company)
Sherman Antitrust Act
-1890, passed by Congress to restore competition by encouraging small businesses and limiting monopolies
Gospel of Wealth
-thesis that hard work and perseverance lead to wealth (main goal in life)
Robber barons
-corrupt leaders of corporations who accumulated money through conspiracies, shady deals, and work of others
-justified by Gospel of Wealth
Jay Gould
-prime example of robber baron
-"Worst Man in the World"
Andrew Carnegie
-started as poor immigrant, worked hard to gain wealth, created steel empire
-"Richest Man in the World"
Social Darwinism
-theory that justified why some Americans grew rich while others remained poor (based on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution)
-"survival of the fittest"
Wage system
-new system of industry work b/c growth of industry
-employees had less independence, not as skilled
-managers held all power
White women in Second Industrial Revolution
-new opportunities to work outside of home with better-paying jobs
African Americans in Second Industrial Revolution
-women were able to get jobs in domestic service (not affected by tech)
-men were excluded and segregated against; lots lost jobs
-in South, even with new industry, men mostly stuck in low-paying jobs
Chinese racism
-Chinese, who had been recruited for mines, faced harshest segregation
-1882, Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act: suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years, limited civil rights of residents
Knights of Labor
-1869 union formed in response to bad working conditions
-accepted everyone except Chinese
-promoted economic cooperation
-biggest success with movement for eight-hour workday
-crushed with Haymarket Square Riot
Haymarket Square Riot
-May 4, 1886: protest in Chicago's Haymarket Square --> somebody threw a bomb and killed 8, policemen responded by killing more
-group of anarchists arrested/executed without real evidence
American Federation of Labor
-formed 1886, led by Samuel Gompers
-more exclusive: only white, male, skilled
-accepted wage system and emphasized a few workplace issues instead of complete reform
New South
-envisioned modern, efficient textile mills, plenty of workers, surplus of land
-attempts to start up industry were stopped by North from fear of competition; by 1920s, North held most of South's wealth
-in actuality, stayed fairly rural and reinforced status as internal colony
Southern Labor
-African Americans still stuck mostly in low-paying jobs
-workers rarely united over race lines
-wages in South were much lower than North
-more child labor and system of convict labor
Growth of city population
-immigrants = most of growth in late 19c, because of expanding opportunities for employment (many planned on making money, then moving back home)
-lots of African Americans moved North
Immigrants/working class in cities
-most immigrants stayed in cities with kinfolk
-often lived better in America, but only with harder work
-some young settled in YMCA and YWCA
-working class women and children did household labor without new appliances and worked at home to make money (sewing, boarders, etc)
-small residential dwellings without good ventilation of light
-majority of city population confined to tenements
Gilded Age
-term applied to late 19c America that refers to shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of period
-dubbed by Mark Twain
Conspicuous consumption
-highly visible displays of wealth and consumption
New middle class
-long work hours allowed families able to live in security/comfort and separate work and home
-end of century, many settled in suburbs
Middle-class women
-used time to take care of home
-relied on new appliances (improved stove, eggbeaters, etc.)
-basic tasks became more complex with new machines
-spending most of time on consumption
Gospel of Exercise
-middle class enjoyed exercising in leisure time (hiking, skating, biking, piano playing)
-public education system grew with growth of industry, esp. high schools
-benefited women, esp. increased access to higher education (medical/law schools, etc.)
-special colleges founded for African Americans
Women's Education and Industrial Union
-founded 1877
-Boston organization offering classes to wage-earning women
-increased construction of parks, ice-skating rinks, playgrounds etc.
National Pastimes
-ragtime music became popular with young urban middle class
-vaudeville also bridged middle- and working-class tastes
-baseball was most popular, appealing to people of all classes