APWH Chapter 6 Self Test
Terms in this set (20)
B (Both "first civilizations" and classical civilizations were patriarchal in organization with women clearly subordinated to men in most spheres of life.)
Like "first civilizations," those of the classical era
a. lacked sharp distinctions along class lines.
b. were patriarchal in organization.
c. rarely included slaves.
d. none of the above.
B (Nowhere was this more apparent than in the political power and immense social prestige of Chinese state officials. For more than 2,000 years, these officials were the cultural and social elite of Chinese civilization.)
China was unique in the ancient world in the extent to which
a. slave holding defined the society.
b. its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state.
c. the caste system defined its social structure.
d. women were allowed a role in public life.
C (Beginning about 200 BCE the Han dynasty established its authority in China and its rulers required that each province send men of promise to the capital where they were examined and chosen for official positions on the basis of their performance.)
Chinese state officials
a. lacked social prestige despite their central role in government.
b. served the emperor but were primarily loyal to their own families and regions.
c. took examinations and were chosen for official positions on the basis of their performance during the Han dynasty.
d. were a hereditary class chosen because of their birth and wealth.
A (In some cases large landowners possessed the resources and dependents needed to raise military forces in opposition to the emperor.)
The Chinese state opposed the growth of a landlord class in control of large landed estates because
a. in some cases wealthy landlords could raise their own military forces that could challenge the authority of the emperor.
b. the rebel Wang Mang, who usurped the emperor's authority in 8 CE, did so by allying with the landlord class against the emperor and peasants.
c. the government did not wish to become too dependent on the taxation of a few wealthy landlords for its revenues.
d. all of the above.
D (Despite their unsavory reputation, many elite officials and landlords found merchants useful and were not averse to profiting from business connections with them.)
Which of the following statements concerning Chinese merchants is false?
a. The cultural elite viewed Chinese merchants as unproductive, making a shameful profit from selling the work of others.
b. Early in the Han dynasty merchants were prohibited from taking civil service exams or holding public office.
c. The government sometimes forced merchants to loan large sums of money to the state.
d. State officials and landlords ostracized Chinese merchants, having no relationships with them despite the potential for profit.
D (Only in India was religious status and ritual purity a central feature in social organization.)
Which of the following was NOT a shared feature of the social organizations of India and China in the classical era?
a. In both, birth determined social status for most people.
b. In both, sharp distinctions and great inequalities characterized the social order.
c. In both, there was little social mobility for the vast majority of the population.
d. In both, priority was given to religious status and ritual purity.
B (Gender did not play a prominent role in the creation of the caste system because all castes possessed both women and men.)
In India, all EXCEPT which of the following factors play a role in defining the caste system?
a. Interaction between culturally different peoples
b. Gender, with distinct male and female castes
c. Social differences
d. Economic differences
C (The Brahmin, Ksatriya, and Vaisya varnas were all believed to be "twice born" in that they experienced not only a physical birth but also formal initiation into their varnas and status as people of Aryan descent.)
The Brahmin, Ksatriya, and Vaisya varnas were distinct from the Sudra varna in that
a. only the Sudras were allowed to hear or repeat the Vedas.
b. only the Sudras were believed to be of Aryan descent.
c. only the Brahmin, Ksatriya, and Vaisya were believed to be "twice born."
d. all of the above.
D (All of these Hindu ideas helped to explain and legitimate the caste system in India.)
Which of the following is a Hindu notion that supported the idea of inherent inequality in the caste system?
a. That birth into a particular caste reflected the karma that the individual had earned in a previous life.
b. That hope of rebirth into a higher caste rested on dharma in this life.
c. Rebirth was a road to salvation.
d. All of the above.
C (A limited form of upward mobility for jatis was possible over several generations by acquiring land or wealth. Jatis could also rise by adopting the behaviors of higher caste groups, or by finding some previously overlooked "ancestor" of a higher caste.)
Once the system of jatis in India was established,
a. individual jati were locked into an unchanging hierarchy in relation to other jatis.
b. individuals within a jati regularly raised their social status by growing wealthy enough to join other jatis.
c. an individual jati could raise its standing in relation to other jatis in the local hierarchy by acquiring land or wealth.
d. no individual could be expelled from his or her jati.
D (Capture in war regularly led to enslavement, the patriarchal organization of societies placed men in positions where they controlled and perhaps even "owned" women, while a growing gap in ownership of private property between rich and poor may have made it possible to imagine owning other people.)
Which of the following features of first civilizations may have contributed to the development of slavery?
a. Large-scale warfare in which prisoners were taken
b. Patriarchal relationships between men and women
c. Class inequalities based on great differences in privately owned property
d. All of the above
C (One of the distinctive features of slavery in the Americas was the extent to which it came to be associated with Africa and "blackness.")
Race was a major factor in the system of slavery in
a. Han China.
b. Ancient Greece and Rome.
c. the Americas after European colonization.
d. all of the above.
A (In China only perhaps one percent of the population were slaves, and slavery was never as prominent or extensive as in some other regions of Eurasia such as the Greco-Roman world.)
Which of the following is NOT true of slavery in classical China?
a. A relatively large percentage, perhaps as much as one-third of the total population, were slaves.
b. Convicted criminals and their families were among the earliest slaves in Han dynasty China.
c. Impoverished or indebted peasants might sell their children into slavery.
d. Slaves never became a major source of labor for agriculture or manufacturing.
C (Slaves could own property and earn money in their spare time. Moreover, slaves were allowed to buy their freedom if they accumulated sufficient resources to do so.)
Which of the following is true of slavery in classical India?
a. Indian civilization was economically dependent on slavery.
b. Religious writings and secular law provided no protection for slaves.
c. Slaves could own property and earn money in their spare time.
d. Unlike China, criminals were not enslaved in India.
A (Ironically, at the same time that democracy was growing more participatory and the status of a free person was being defined, classical Athens also saw the massive growth of slavery.)
In classical Athens
a. the growth of democracy was accompanied by the simultaneous growth of slavery on a massive scale.
b. a slave who was freed by his or her master became a citizen of the city-state.
c. slaves made up no more than 3% of the total population.
d. slavery was criticized by the greatest of the Greek philosophers including Aristotle, and was ultimately outlawed in society as a whole.
B (Slaves made up a substantial portion of the population of the whole empire and particularly its Italian heartland.)
Which of the following was a feature of slavery in the Roman world?
a. Roman slaves were employed exclusively as agricultural labor on the estates of the rich.
b. Slaves made up a substantial portion of the population, including perhaps 33 to 40 percent of the population in the Italian heartland of the empire.
c. The triumph of Christianity in the Roman Empire brought an end to the practice of slavery.
d. Slaves were primarily drawn from Africa and slavery was associated with blackness.
C (The split between public and private was a general characteristic, particularly when it came to formal political power.)
In classical civilizations
a. upper-class women had a tendency to live less restricted lives than lower-class women.
b. women in general experienced fewer restrictions compared to those living in pastoral societies.
c. public life in general was a male domain, while women's roles took place mostly in domestic settings.
d. patriarchy was only present in Rome and China.
C (In Buddhist monasteries women could lead lives as nuns that offered a viable alternative to marriage and family life.)
In the centuries following the fall of the Han Empire, Chinese women
a. found themselves restricted to a greater degree than ever before because of the cultural influence of the nomadic peoples who conquered much of northern China.
b. were removed from positions as priests, nuns, and reclusive mediators in Daoist movements.
c. benefited from the growing influence of Buddhism, which provided some women with an alternative to family life in Buddhist monasteries.
d. were encouraged by the writings of Ban Zhou to be more assertive in their relationships to men.
B (Spartan women generally married men of their own age, while in Athens women typically married men who were ten or fifteen years their seniors.)
Which of the following distinguished the experience of women in Sparta from those in Athens?
a. Upper-class women in Sparta were more strictly confined to the home than those in Athens.
b. In Sparta women married men of about their own age.
c. Athenian women were able to participate in their democratic government, whereas Spartan women were unable to participate in their oligarchic government.
d. In Athens elite women were strongly encouraged to learn to read and write.
B (Except for in Sparta, homoerotic relationships were culturally approved and were fairly common for both men and women.)
In classical Greece
a. Athens was the only city state that may have prohibited homosexuality.
b. homoerotic relationships were culturally approved for both men and women in most Greek city states.
c. an ideal homosexual relationship occurred between two adolescents, who would be expected to end such a relationship when they reached maturity.
d. all of the above.