a statement of the reasons for the American colonies break with Britain
Checks and balances
a measure designed to prevent any branch of government from dominating the others
a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution which protects citizens basic rights
the political and social system that existed in France before the French revolution
one of the three social classes in France before the French revolution. The first estate was the clergy, the second was nobility , the third was the rest of the population
an assembly of representatives from all three of the states or social classes in France
a French Congress established by representatives of the three estates
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by members of France National Assembly in 1789 in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new situation
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French Countryside after the storming of the BAstille
a French congress with power to create laws and approve declarations of war
a person who leaves his native country for political reasons
Reign of Terror
the period from 1793 to mid 1794 when Maximillen Roberspiere ruled France as a dictator and thousands of people were executed
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
a formal agreement especially one between the pope and a government dealing with the control of the church
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napolean
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century
What was the Enlightenment
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
What were the three long term effects of the Enlightenment that helped shape Western civilization?
belief in progress growth in scientific knowledge a more secular outlook
How did the Constitution and the Bill of Rights reflect Enlightenment Ideas?
Colonial Leaders used these ideas to justify independence
How did Enlightenment Ideas contribute to the Revolutionary mood in France?
Members of the 3rd estate were inspired by the American Revolution. They began questioning long standing notions about the structure of society. They demanded equality, liberty, and democracy.
What effects did the September Massacres have on the government?
The Legislative assembly set aside the Constitution of 1871.They declared the king deposed,dissolved the assembly, and called for election of a new legislature called the National Convention.
Explain Napolean's coupd etat to gain power in France
Napoleon returned from a military campaign in Egypt and took action to seize political power in France.His troops surrounded the National legislature and drove out most of its members. Those that stayed voted to dissolve the Directory and establish a group of 3 consuls.Napolean was first consul.
Describe the three steps of Klemens von Meternich to restore order in Europe
1. he wanted to prevent future French agression by surrounding France with strong countries 2. he wanted to restore the balance of power 3 he wanted to restore Europe's royal families
Who was Thomas Hobbes?
He believed that people should hand over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order:known as a social contract
Who was Voltaire?
fought for tolerance , reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech
Who was Montesquieu?
proposed the separation of powers so no group of individual could gain control of the government
Who was Rousseau?
believed good government was one freely formed by the people;all people are equal; titles of nobility should be abolished
Who was Beccaria?
He believed laws existed to preserve the social order; people should receive a speedy trial; torture should never be used ; degree of punishment depended on the crime
Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?
she argued that women need education to become virtuous and useful; urged women to enter the male dominated fields of medicine and politics
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
a political leader who wrote the Declaration of Independence; supported free speech; religious freedom; but was a slave owner
Who was Louis XVI
the King of France before the French Revolution. He put France into heavy debt and was an ineffective leader
Who was Marie Antoinette?
the queen of France before the French Revolution, she gave Louis XVI bad advice and helped put France into debt
Who was Robespierre?
His rule in France was known as the "Reign of Terror" and sent many to the guillotine
Who was Klemens von Metternich?
He was the foreigh minister of Austria who was the most influential representative of the Congress of Vienna
Who was John Locke?
believed that people had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society; favored the idea of self government